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June 11, 2013 Day 143 of the Fifth Year - History

June 11, 2013 Day 143 of the Fifth Year - History


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Bo, the Obama family dog, waits to greet President Barack Obama in the Outer Oval Office, June 11, 2013.

9:30AM THE PRESIDENT and THE VICE PRESIDENT receive the Presidential Daily Briefing
Oval Office

10:20AM THE PRESIDENT delivers remarks on Immigration Reform
The East Room

11:10AM THE PRESIDENT and President Ollanta Humala of Peru hold a bilateral meeting; THE VICE PRESIDENT also attends
Oval Office

4:30PM THE PRESIDENT meets with Secretary of Defense Hagel; THE VICE PRESIDENT also attends
Oval Office

5:20PM THE PRESIDENT hosts a screening of The President’s Gatekeepers at the White House
The Family Theatre


The Dry Bones Blog

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Patriot Day

Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.

Patriot Day, holiday observed in the United States on September 11 to commemorate the lives of those who died in the 2001 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon in Virginia and those who perished when the hijacked United Airlines Flight 93 crashed in Pennsylvania. The holiday also recognizes those who died attempting to rescue people trapped by the attacks.

By a joint resolution of the U.S. Congress on Dec. 18, 2001, September 11 was designated as Patriot Day. The resolution calls for the president of the United States to issue a yearly proclamation requesting that all U.S. flags be flown at half-staff. Further, Americans are asked to honour the dead with a moment of silence beginning at 8:46 am , Eastern Standard Time, the time that the first airplane struck the World Trade Center, and to respect the ceremonies of remembrance when they are conducted. Prior to passage of the resolution, several other names had been proposed for the day, such as the National Day of Remembrance and the National Day of Prayer and Remembrance.

This article was most recently revised and updated by Amy McKenna, Senior Editor.


June 11, 2013 Day 143 of the Fifth Year - History

Satisfying your need for movies. Movieoftheday comes in a variety - ranging from award-winning films to indie flicks to box-office hits. I'm positive movieoftheday will delight you in some way.

Enjoy the movieoftheday that is currently showing? Show some love by recommending me here!

All movie requests and comments go here and here.

Also, you should follow my other film Tumblr here.

  • Rushmore
  • Goodfellas
  • Stranger Than Fiction
  • Moulin Rouge!
  • Gone With the Wind
  • Memento
  • Election
  • American Psycho

Since I&rsquom not available to all the software and desktop that I use to make screenshots for this Tumblr at the moment (don&rsquot worry I&rsquoll start it up as soon as possible), follow my new blog called theoscarbait. If you appreciate films of style, genius, and/or innovation, this is a Tumblr to follow. No worries, there will be no excessive posting, nor will I remove my attention from movieoftheday, but as I wait to get my resources this will be something I will put my focus on. I will also try to not lose sight of theoscarbait as well because with the other film blog I made&hellip it was pretty much a failure and an embarrassment as well, however I will not let my new blog turn out to be one!

I think this reign of terror is over. At least I hope so. I think this may be a sign? Maybe my Tumblr is telling me to come back. And I think that&rsquos what I&rsquoll do. Expect something from me soon. Anyways, I will apologize to all of you for third time because I&rsquove felt like this was a major inconvenience to my life and all of yours. Thank you for supporting and keeping faith with me since this chaos started. However, I&rsquom glad to be back.

I feel like no one&rsquos going to read this because it will vanish within the flood of the Atonement songs, however I would like to say that in a matter of a couple of hours I managed to lose thousands of followers which is understandable to say the least. No worry I&rsquom working on the problem right now - in an Apple store in San Francisco, and I have yet to find a solution. I have deleted the original post, changed my e-mail, changed my password, etc. and it still is managing to continuously resulting in my and the mass of Tumblr&rsquos irritation. If you could somehow have the knowledge on how to solve this problem, let me know, I&rsquod greatly appreciate it. I contacted the Tumblr Staff, but I don&rsquot know when they&rsquoll be able to get back at me. Hopefully they&rsquore trying to resolve the problem now because I honestly can&rsquot take this&hellip despite how hilarious it really is. Once again I apologize, and if you unfollow I understand.

I have no idea why or how this continuous spam of that fuckin Atonement song came to be, but I apologize for the chaos. I&rsquom currently limited to Tumblr right now because I&rsquom mobile at the moment, however I will fix this as soon as possible. I can&rsquot imagine what it is to be you and find your whole dashboard flooded with one song. I feel so helpless but I will try my best. Even if I have to go to Apple to fix this fucking glitch or bug. I must admit though, it is pretty funny but annoying and strange. And with that, I bid you farewell until the next time! This will stop in the next hour or so I hope. And once again I apologize for the glitch.


This Is Why You Get To Celebrate Your Birthday Every Year

Have you ever thought about why we even bother to celebrate birthdays? When you think about it, they're really just an opportunity for your friends and family to come together and congratulate you for surviving another year. But for some reason it's become far more than that.

Although research on the exact origin of birthdays and birthday cakes remains inconclusive, there is enough of a consensus to piece together an approximate history. Perhaps someday a Birthdayologist will come along to set the record completely straight, but until then, we've compiled this short list of historians' best hypotheses on the evolution of birthday celebrations and the delicious cakes that so often accompany them.

Here are seven of the major developments throughout history that have led to you being able to do this once a year.

1. Egyptians started the party.

When pharaohs were crowned in ancient Egypt they were considered to have transformed into gods. This divine promotion made their coronation date much more important than their birth into the world. Scholars have pointed to the Bible's reference of a Pharaoh's birthday as the earliest known mention of a birthday celebration (around 3,000 B.C.E.), but Egyptologist Dr. James Hoffmeier believes this is referencing the subject's coronation date, since that would have been the Pharaoh's "birth" as a god.

2. Greeks added candles to cakes.

The Greeks offered moon-shaped cakes to Artemis as a form of tribute to the lunar goddess. To recreate the radiance of the moon and her perceived beauty, Greeks lit candles and put them on cakes for a glowing effect. The Greeks most likely took the idea of birthday celebration from the Egyptians, since just like the celebration of the pharaohs as "gods," the Greeks were celebrating their gods and goddesses.

3. Ancient Romans were the first to celebrate birthdays for the common man (but just the men).

The prevailing opinion seems to be that the Romans were the first civilization to celebrate birthdays for non-religious figures. Romans would celebrate birthdays for friends and families, while the government created public holidays to observe the birthdays of more famous citizens. Those celebrating a 50th birthday party would receive a special cake made of wheat flour, olive oil, honey and grated cheese. All of this said, female birthdays still weren't celebrated until around the 12th century.

4. Christians initially considered birthdays to be a pagan ritual.

Due to its belief that humans are born with "original sin" and the fact that early birthdays were tied to "pagan" gods, the Christian Church considered birthday celebrations evil for the first few hundred years of its existence. Around the 4th century, Christians changed their minds and began to celebrate the birthday of Jesus as the holiday of Christmas. This new celebration was accepted into the church partly in hopes of recruiting those already celebrating the Roman holiday of Saturnalia.

5. Contemporary birthday cakes were invented by German bakers.

Although the general idea of celebrating birthdays had already started taking off around the world -- like in China, where a child's first birthday was specifically honored -- Kinderfeste, which came out of late 18th century Germany, is the closest prerequisite to the contemporary birthday party. This celebration was held for German children, or "kinder," and involved both birthday cake and candles. Kids got one candle for each year they'd been alive, plus another to symbolize the hope of living for at least one more year. Blowing out the candles and making a wish was also a part of these celebrations.

6. The Industrial Revolution brought delicious cakes to the masses.

For quite some time, birthday celebrations involving sugary cakes were only available to the very wealthy, as the necessary ingredients were considered a luxury. But the industrial revolution allowed celebrations like kinderfest and the subsequent equivalents in other cultures to proliferate. Not only did the required ingredients become more abundant, but bakeries also started offering pre-made cakes at lower prices due to advances in mass production, such as the scene above capturing workers of one of the many Cadby Hall bakeries of the late 19th century.

7. "The Birthday Song" was a remix, kind of.

In 1893, Patty Hill and Mildred J. Hill wrote a song they called, "Good Morning To All," which was intended to be sung by students before classes began. The song eventually caught on across America, giving rise to a number of variations. Robert Coleman eventually published a songbook in 1924, adding a few extra lyrics that would quickly come to overshadow the original lines. The new rendition became the version we now all know, "Happy Birthday To You."

BONUS: Marie Antoinette didn't say "Let them eat cake."

First off, nobody attributed this quote to Marie Antoinette until about 50 years after her death, when French critic and journalist Alphonse Karr claimed Antoinette had said the phrase, but essentially only sourced rumors. Despite Karr's theory, the phrase "let them eat cake" actually first appeared in Jean-Jacques Rousseau's autobiography, "The Confessions." In the book, Rousseau is afraid to go into a bakery because he feels underdressed. He then muses, "Finally I recalled the stopgap solution of a great princess who was told that the peasants had no bread, and who responded: 'Let them eat brioche.'"

Antoinette was actually just a little girl when Rousseau's work was written. While it's possible that she had read Rousseau's line and was quoting it in the infamous moment (and therefore not making a tone deaf remark about poverty), Antoinette biographer Lady Antonia Fraser, disapproves of this theory.

"[Let them eat cake] was said 100 years before her by Marie-Thérèse, the wife of Louis XIV. It was a callous and ignorant statement and she, Marie Antoinette, was neither," Fraser said in defense of the young princess. Marie Antoinette's name should be cleared!


Full Moon for April 2021

Full Moon for March 2021

Full Moon for September 2020

Full Moon for February 2021

Summer Solstice 2021: The First.

Night Sky Watch for June 2021

Full Moon for July 2020

Fishing Calendar for 2021

First Day of Spring 2021: The.

Full Moon in May 2021

The Month of June 2021: Holidays.

The Month of May 2021: Holidays.


Bandsaws and Beds

I’ve worked with wood all my working life so far now and I can’t imagine not doing it. Today I begin making a king-size Craftsman-style bed from oak. I suppose it’s really more craftsman-inspired in that visually it could be said to be like another, but I am designing this one from scratch. I have never copied a design in my life and so I don’t intend to start now. Often woodworkers are inspired by the work of another and design something that has a feel of a design from someone else or a definite copy of a period piece.

This weekend my friend, Duncan, came by to learn some saw sharpening. He came with a lovely Ash chair he had designed and made by hand. It was a simple, uncomplicated design that lent itself to hand tool work and we talked about how it could be made using mostly hand tools as this one had been made. I thought the bandsaw was the ideal machine to rough down wood to size and that he could easily eliminate the need for planer and jointer all together because chair parts are always small and lend themselves to hand work like planing and shaping. I started the ing about this coming year as we will be focussing a percentage of our work to power machines and addressing the issues that so confuse woodworkers as to what they really need to prep their wood for subsequent hand work. I have four bandsaws now and may well bring in a fifth one. I have one at my house and three at the castle. Why? Well, they take up very little room compared to other freestanding machines, I can load different blades in each machine and I can tune them to the different work I use them for. But we will be going into that much more deeply over the next few months. Also, me y needs are different than yours will be I think and we will indeed be looking at different machine operational options for you to better understand as we go. You definitely do not need to go out and buy four or five bandsaw machines one good one will work just fine. I suggest you wait for a more definitive review when we start this next phase in our teaching. Well be looking at old and new options. Powerhouses and bench top models too. I have every kind of bandsaw on a daily basis many times a day since January 1965. That’s 14,400 days when I switched on a bandsaw several times a day. My first bandsaw stood 8′ tall, today I use a 14″ – 18″ bandsaws. I used the same Grizzly 18″ bandsaw I bought in 1988 until 2007. I replaced one bearing only in all of those years and the work I did was often done for several hours a day throughout that period. The machine never let me down once. I sold it on to another woodworker and as far as I know he’s still using it. New ones are very nice now and have several safety features I think are important. Perhaps one day SawStop will put their technology into bandsaws. Now that would be well worth the investment. At an auction a few short years ago I bought a small but very old US Powermatic 14″ with a cast iron body, cast iron back and doors for $25. It’s a great little machine.

Back to the Bed

I am using oak for the bed I am making. Today I pulled the wood and started to cut the rough dimensions on the bandsaw. Rails, side rails, head board and a zillion square uprights will keep me busy tomorrow. I will post most days if there’s something interesting about the work. Today was all sweat, grunt and shove. We will run the cameras too most likely, so you can maybe see some of what I do as I work.

Beds are simple projects and this one would be simple but for the size and the number of parts. I tuned up the bandsaw with a new blade installed so tomorrow I start cutting and planing which will take me all day. I could use my mortise machine for the mortises but I want this to be mostly hand work, so I can keep in shape over the holiday period.

I know a lot of my peers cannot fathom why, if I have mortiser, would I consider doing it by hand. Mostly it’s because they see it as purely hard and inaccurate work. I used to think the same way they do. You see, I think it’s that they just don’t know.


Penn State Abuse Scandal: A Guide And Timeline

Former Penn State defensive coordinator Gerald "Jerry" Sandusky was found guilty of sexual abuse, convicted of 45 out of 48 counts on Friday, June 22. He was accused of sexually abusing 10 boys over a 15-year period in a scandal that has rocked the university's community. Several alleged victims have testified in the trial, which began on June 11.

Sandusky, 68, and his attorney maintained that he was innocent of the charges, which stem from a grand jury investigation. The former coaching assistant says he merely "horsed around" with the boys, all of whom he met through his Second Mile charity.

Penn State University fired long-time coach Joe Paterno and president Graham Spanier on Nov. 9, four days after Sandusky was initially arrested. Two school officials who have stepped down from their posts — athletic director Tim Curley and a vice president, Gary Schultz — are accused of perjury and failing to report suspected child abuse.

When the investigation became public, Pennsylvania Attorney General Linda Kelly said that Paterno was "not regarded as a target." The former coach died of lung cancer in January.

Key Figures

Jerry Sandusky: The former defensive coordinator is charged with sexually abusing 10 boys over a 15-year period. Sandusky, 68, maintains he is innocent. He played football at Penn State and was a coach there for 32 years — 23 of them as the team's defensive coordinator. He and his wife, Dottie, raised six adopted children.

Tim Curley: The Penn State athletic director, 57, denies being told of sexual misconduct by Sandusky in 2002 but is accused of covering up allegations tied to the scandal. He was named athletic director on Dec. 30, 1993. Curley went on administrative leave the day before his Nov. 7 arraignment.

Gary Schultz: As the school's senior vice president for finance and business — which gives him oversight of university police — Schultz, 62, has been charged with covering up abuse allegations. He served as Penn State's senior vice president and treasurer from 1993 to 2009, when he retired. Schultz returned to the same job in 2011, on a temporary basis. In early 2010, the university named a campus child care center after Schultz, who retired again on Nov. 6.

Joe Paterno: Coach "Joe Pa" died in January at age 85. He was fired from his job four days after Sandusky's arrest, having been an assistant or head coach at Penn State since 1950. The scandal had prompted Paterno to say he would retire after the 2011 season, but school trustees ended his tenure hours after the coach made that pledge. In a statement before he was fired, Paterno said, "This is a tragedy. It is one of the great sorrows of my life. With the benefit of hindsight, I wish I had done more."

Graham Spanier: Spanier, 63, was fired along with Paterno on Nov. 9. He became the university's president in 1995, after serving at universities in Oregon, Nebraska, and New York. A faculty and staff member at Penn State from 1973 to 1982, Spanier's academic background is in sociology and family counseling.

Mike McQueary: In 2002, the then-graduate assistant told Paterno that he had witnessed Sandusky abusing a boy in a Penn State locker room shower. Paterno informed Curley, who later met with McQueary and Schultz. McQueary, who became an assistant coach at Penn State, reiterated his statement to the grand jury. He has reportedly said that he went to the police the authorities dispute that claim. The school put him on administrative leave on Nov. 11.

Jim Calhoun: A temporary worker whose job as a janitor at Penn State lasted only eight months, Calhoun told co-workers and a supervisor in 2000 that he witnessed Sandusky engaging in sexual activity with a boy in a campus locker-room shower. Several staff members later said that Calhoun, a veteran of the Korean War, was visibly shaken by what he reported seeing. He now resides in an assisted living facility and reportedly has dementia.

Ray Gricar: Declared legally dead in July, Gricar was the Centre County district attorney from 1985 to 2005, when he disappeared. He chose not to prosecute Sandusky in 1998 after allegations of inappropriate contact with young boys surfaced. The decision helped to end a police investigation into the report.

Wendell Courtney: The former general counsel for Penn State University is also the longtime lawyer for Sandusky's charity foundation, The Second Mile. He was working for both organizations when, according to Schultz, he reviewed the 1998 university police report about Sandusky's behavior with boys.

Timeline Of Events

1977: Jerry Sandusky establishes The Second Mile in State College, Pa., "as a group foster home devoted to helping troubled boys," according to the grand jury's findings. The program evolves into a statewide charity whose honorary board members include Paterno and other sports figures.

1993: Tim Curley becomes Penn State's athletic director. That same year, Gary Schultz is named the school's treasurer and senior vice president.

1994: A boy identified as Victim 7 in the grand jury report meets Sandusky through the Second Mile program. Now 26, Victim 7 says that after a couple of years in the program, he often spent Friday nights at Sandusky's house and attended football games with him the next day. He says Sandusky touched him in ways that made him uncomfortable, primarily during car rides and when the two showered after a workout.

1998: An 11-year-old boy returns home with wet hair after an outing with Sandusky. Victim 6 tells his mother he took a shower with Sandusky and that the coach hugged him several times. The boy's mother contacts university police, triggering an investigation.

On May 13 and May 19, Det. Ronald Shreffler records the boy's mother during a call with Sandusky. Court papers say Sandusky acknowledges that he showered with the boy, as well as with others. When the mother cuts off contact with Sandusky after a second call, he tells her, "I wish I were dead," according to court papers.

On June 1, Jerry Lauro, an investigator from the Pennsylvania Department of Public Welfare, takes part in an interview of Sandusky by Shreffler. According to the grand jury report, Sandusky admits to hugging the boy in the shower, and says he will not shower with children again.

Shreffler speaks to another boy who reports similar treatment to that reported by Victim 6. But the investigation ends after District Attorney Ray Gricar decides the case warrants no criminal charges. Shreffler tells the grand jury that Thomas Harmon, who headed the campus police, told him to close the inquiry.

1999: Sandusky retires from Penn State's football program, but with an "emeritus" label that allows him continued access to campus facilities, including the locker room and an office in the Lasch Football Building. Schultz has testified that the timing of Sandusky's retirement was not related to the university police investigation a year earlier.

2000: Jim Calhoun, a janitor at the Lasch building, tells a co-worker and his supervisor that he saw Sandusky engaged in sexual activity with a boy in the assistant coaches' shower. The boy, referred to as Victim 8 in court papers, has never been identified.

Calhoun's colleague Ronald Petrosky, who reported seeing Sandusky's car in the parking lot later that night in the fall of 2000, says that members of the janitorial staff were concerned that they might lose their jobs if they spoke out about what had happened.

After Calhoun told his supervisor, Jay Witherite, what he had seen, Witherite told him whom he could report the incident to, if he chose to do so.

2002: A graduate assistant reports seeing Sandusky sexually assaulting a boy in the showers at Lasch Football Building on the Penn State campus, around 9:30 p.m. on Friday, March 1. The assault on the boy, who Kelly said "appeared to be about 10 years old," is reported to Paterno the next day. Paterno, in turn, passes the information to Curley one day later.

The graduate assistant, who has since been identified as current Penn State assistant coach Mike McQueary, meets with Curley and Schultz, but not Paterno, some 10 days later. According to McQueary, he told them that he had seen Sandusky having sex with a boy in the showers. No report is made to police or to any child protection agency — a breach of state law, prosecutors say.

Two weeks later, Curley tells McQueary that Sandusky's keys to the locker room have been taken away and that the incident was reported to The Second Mile charity.

Sandusky is banned from bringing children onto the Penn State campus in a decision reviewed and approved by Spanier, the university president.

2009: The mother of the boy identified by court papers as Victim 1 calls a high school in Clinton County to report that her son was sexually abused by Sandusky. The school district bans Sandusky from any of its campuses, and the police are notified.

2010: In December, the graduate assistant who had reported the 2002 assault testifies before a grand jury investigating Sandusky, detailing what he saw and what he told Paterno, Schultz and Curley.

And in 2010 or 2011, Victim 7 tells the grand jury that prior to his testimony, he received voice mails from Sandusky, his wife and a friend of Sandusky's. Victim 7 says he did not return any of the calls.

2011: In his Jan. 12 grand jury testimony, Curley says the graduate assistant reported only "inappropriate," not "sexual" conduct, calling the conduct "horsing around."

Also testifying on Jan. 12, Schultz says he met with Curley and Paterno about the abuse allegations. But he tells the grand jury that he was unsure about the details of what had happened and that he thought Sandusky and the boy might have been wrestling when the inappropriate contact occurred.

Nov. 5: The investigation into Sandusky, Curley and Schultz becomes public, with prosecutors accusing the former assistant coach of making inappropriate sexual advances or assaults on eight boys, from 1994 to 2009.

Nov. 6: Curley and Schultz vacate their university posts following an emergency meeting with school officials.

Nov. 7: Curley and Schultz are arraigned on charges of making false statements to the grand jury and failing to report the possible abuse of a child.

Nov. 9: Paterno, coming under increasing pressure to resign in the wake of the Sandusky scandal, announces that he will retire at the end of the 2011 season, when his three-year contract expires. In a statement, Paterno said, "This is a tragedy. It is one of the great sorrows of my life. With the benefit of hindsight, I wish I had done more."

But a few hours after Paterno made his announcement, the Penn State Board of Trustees announces that it has fired both Paterno and school president Graham Spanier — "effective immediately," according to the board.

In their place, the trustees named executive vice president and provost Rodney A. Erickson as the school's interim president, and assistant coach Tom Bradley as the interim head football coach.

Nov. 11: Penn State places McQueary on administrative leave. The move comes one day after the school announced it would be "in the best interest of all" if McQueary did not attend the season's final home game, citing multiple threats made against him.

Nov. 13: The leader of The Second Mile, the charity Sandusky founded and, according to prosecutors, used to find his alleged victims, resigns. President and CEO Jack Raykovitz held the post for 28 years.

Nov. 14: The ongoing child-abuse investigation has found almost 10 other young men who may have been abused, according to a report in The New York Times. In a telephone interview with Bob Costas, Sandusky admits to showering with boys, but he says he is innocent of the charges, and that he only "horsed around" with them.

Nov. 17: City and university police dispute McQueary's claim that he spoke to police and "made sure it stopped" after allegedly witnessing Sandusky abusing a boy in 2002 — claims the assistant coach seemingly made in an email to friends after the scandal became public.

Nov. 21: Penn State announces that it has hired former FBI director Louis Freeh to investigate the abuse allegations.

Nov. 30: A civil lawsuit is filed against Sandusky, The Second Mile and Penn State, claiming that Sandusky sexually abused the plaintiff more than 100 times when he was between 10 and 14 years old. The plaintiff, identified only as John Doe, 29, is not among the eight alleged victims in the grand jury's initial report. The news comes one day after Second Mile urges its supporters to make future donations to another charity, the Pennsylvania Coalition Against Rape.

Dec. 7: Sandusky is arrested and charged with abusing two more boys. The new cases mean that the former coach faces 52 charges, in the abuse of more than 10 boys. Like the other alleged victims, the young men say they first met Sandusky through his charity.

Dec. 13: Sandusky waives his right to a Dec. 13 preliminary hearing to establish probable cause on the charges. The move keeps Sandusky's accusers from providing early testimony in the high-profile case. The former coach's next court date is Jan. 11, 2012.

Jan. 6: Penn State hires Bill O'Brien as its new head football coach. Like Paterno, he is a graduate of Brown University.

Jan. 22: Former coach Joe Paterno dies, after a battle with lung cancer.

May 8: At prosecutors' request, Judge John Cleland allows documents related to some of McQueary's allegations against Sandusky to be altered. The revisions change the date of events McQueary had previously said happened in March of 2002 the papers now allege that the events occurred 13 months earlier, in February of 2001.

June 6: A nine-member jury consisting of five men and seven women is chosen for Sandusky's trial in Pennsylvania's Centre County. Several of the jurors have ties to Penn State, as either professors or students.

June 11: As the trial opens, prosecutor Joe McGettigan tells the jury that Sandusky is a "serial predator," and shows them photos of the alleged victims, taken when they were children. Defense attorney Joe Amendola tells the jurors that Sandusky's accusers are seeking financial gain.

June 18: After featuring the testimony of several alleged victims, the prosecution in the case rests. The defense begins with a successful request to remove one count, regarding victim 7, on the grounds that the charge was made under a statute that would not have applied at the specified time.

June 20: Sandusky's defense team rests its case, one day after his wife, Dottie, took the stand. Other defense witnesses included friends and young men who said Sandusky had helped them personally and through his charity. Despite hints otherwise, the former coach did not testify on his own behalf.

June 22: The jury finds Sandusky guilty of 45 out of 48 counts of sexual abuse.

Sections of this timeline are based on events as described by the investigating grand jury's findings.

Former Penn State defensive coordinator Gerald "Jerry" Sandusky was found guilty of sexual abuse, convicted of 45 out of 48 counts on Friday, June 22. He was accused of sexually abusing 10 boys over a 15-year period in a scandal that has rocked the university's community. Several alleged victims have testified in the trial, which began on June 11.

Sandusky, 68, and his attorney maintained that he was innocent of the charges, which stem from a grand jury investigation. The former coaching assistant says he merely "horsed around" with the boys, all of whom he met through his Second Mile charity.

Penn State University fired long-time coach Joe Paterno and president Graham Spanier on Nov. 9, four days after Sandusky was initially arrested. Two school officials who have stepped down from their posts — athletic director Tim Curley and a vice president, Gary Schultz — are accused of perjury and failing to report suspected child abuse.

When the investigation became public, Pennsylvania Attorney General Linda Kelly said that Paterno was "not regarded as a target." The former coach died of lung cancer in January.


Your Complete Guide to the British Royal Family Tree and Line of Succession

T he British royal family tree and line of succession is going through some changes. Nearly a year after their marriage last May, Prince Harry and Meghan, Duchess of Sussex, announced on Monday that they welcomed their first child, a baby boy. On Wednesday, they revealed his name: Archie Harrison Mountbatten-Windsor.

While Queen Elizabeth II, Prince Charles, Prince William and Prince George are fairly easy to place in the rather complicated British royal family tree, where do royals like Princess Eugenie, Zara Tindall and Prince Edward come into the picture? If you can’t get your head around the head-scratch-worthy royal family tree, don’t be too hard on yourself. The most famous family in Britain is a notoriously complicated one, with a few divorces, second marriages and name repetitions.

To make matters even more complicated, the British royal line of succession is also pretty complex. Until fairly recently, the line of succession followed a system of male preference primogeniture &mdash where princes took precedence over their older sisters. However, the 2013 Succession to the Crown Act amended the system so that males no longer take precedence over their older sisters. This is why, although Kate Middleton and Prince William’s third child is a boy, Princess Charlotte will remain fourth in line to the throne and won’t be bumped down to fifth place.


Covid-19: UK economy plunges into deepest recession since records began

Britain has entered the deepest recession since records began as official figures on Wednesday showed the economy shrank by more than any other major nation during the coronavirus outbreak in the three months to June.

The Office for National Statistics (ONS) said gross domestic product (GDP), the broadest measure of economic prosperity, fell in the second quarter by 20.4% compared with the previous three months – the biggest quarterly decline since comparable records began in 1955.

After a decline of 2.2% in the first quarter, the figures confirm the UK economy plunged into recession after the Covid-19 outbreak spread in March and the government imposed a nationwide lockdown to contain it. Economists consider two consecutive quarters of shrinking GDP as the technical definition of a recession.

After resisting the launch of lockdown until later than other countries around the world and relaxing controls at a slower pace, the ONS said the UK had plunged into the deepest decline of any G7 nation in the second quarter. The downturn is also deeper than any other country in the EU and surpassed a 12.1% quarterly drop in the eurozone.

Warning that the government was making a historic mistake by winding down the furlough wage subsidy scheme as the country falls into recession, Anneliese Dodds, the shadow chancellor, said the downturn was a tragedy for the British people that had happened on Boris Johnson’s watch.

“The prime minister will say there’s only so much he could do during a global pandemic but that doesn’t explain why our economy is tanking so badly compared to other countries,” she said.

Britain’s decline was more than double the 10.6% fall in the US over the same period and also surpassed declines in France, Germany and Italy among G7 nations that have reported second-quarter figures so far. Canada and Japan have yet to publish second-quarter data but are not expected to record greater falls than Britain.

Rishi Sunak, the chancellor, said many people would lose their jobs in the coming months. “I’ve said before that hard times were ahead and today’s figures confirm that hard times are here,” he said.

“But while there are difficult choices to be made ahead, we will get through this and I can assure people that nobody will be left without hope or opportunity.”

What is a recession?

One of the two main definitions of recession in the UK is at least two quarters of shrinking gross domestic product (GDP), the broadest measure of economic prosperity. Judged by this yardstick, the UK was last in recession in 2008-09, when there were six consecutive quarters of negative growth.

The economic shock triggered by the coronavirus pandemic caused GDP to fall by 2.2% in the first quarter of 2020 and by 20.4% in the second – the sharpest decline since modern records began in 1955.

Some economists believe this definition of recession is flawed, since an economy would not be in recession if it contracted by 5% in the first quarter, expanded by 0.1% in each of the following two quarters and then contracted again by 5% in the fourth quarter. It would, however, be deemed to be in recession if it grew by 5% in each of the first and fourth quarters but contracted by 0.1% in each of the second and third quarters.

An alternative – and tougher definition – is a full calendar year of negative output. Given the UK economy has grown on average by 2.5% over many decades, it is rare for gross domestic product (GDP) to fall on an annual basis. There have been only five such years since the end of the second world war: 1974, 1975, 1980, 1981 and 1991.

The US has its own method of assessing recession, with the National Bureau of Economic Research's business cycle-dating committee making a judgment.

The NBER defines recession as "a significant decline in economic activity spread across the economy, lasting more than a few months, normally visible in real GDP, real income, employment, industrial production and wholesale-retail sales".

Confirming the onset of the deepest recession since records began, the ONS said the decline in the second quarter was widespread, with a dramatic plunge in output across the services, production and construction industries. Reflecting the public health restrictions and forms of voluntary physical distancing in response to Covid-19, it said the pandemic had erased 17 years of economic growth in only two quarters – taking the level of GDP back to the equivalent position in June 2003.

Spending in the economy by households and businesses plunged by a quarter as lockdown measures forced people to stay at home, shops closed, building sites fell idle and factories paused production.

However, monthly figures for the economy indicate that an economic recovery from the pandemic strengthened in June as lockdown measures were gradually relaxed and pent-up demand fuelled a rise in consumer spending. GDP grew by 8.7% in June compared with the previous month – faster than expected by City economists.

The latest snapshot confirmed growth returned in May and strengthened in June, although not by enough to offset a dramatic collapse in output in April during the first full month of restrictions on business and social life, which was deep enough to push the economy into negative growth across the quarter.

GDP has grown 11.3% since the depths of lockdown in April but remains 17.2% below its level in February before the pandemic struck.

Jonathan Athow, the deputy statistician for economic statistics at the ONS, said: “The economy began to bounce back in June, with shops reopening, factories beginning to ramp up production and housebuilding continuing to recover. Despite this, GDP in June still remains a sixth below its level in February, before the virus struck.”

Despite signs of a recovery taking hold, the shockwave triggered by the economic collapse is continuing to be felt, as unemployment begins to rise while businesses across the country struggle to stay afloat. Britain’s jobless rate is expected to more than double to the highest level since the 1980s before Christmas.

Sectors of the economy more reliant on social interaction – such as hospitality and leisure – suffered a steeper decline in activity than industries where homeworking and internet sales were able to increase in response. Food and drink sector activities fell by 84.7% as a result of the closure of bars and restaurants in the second quarter, while car sales and retail activity plunged by 63%.

Business leaders warned the threat of a second wave in infections, local lockdown restrictions and Brexit uncertainty meant a sustained economic recovery was by no means assured. Economists also warned the pick-up in activity in May and June was predominantly driven by the release of pent-up demand and said growth could falter over the coming months as unemployment rises.

Alpesh Paleja, the lead economist at the CBI, said: “The dual threats of a second wave and slow progress over Brexit negotiations are also particularly concerning, underlining the need for maximum agility from government on both these issues, allowing a greater focus on the economy’s long-term future.”

James Smith, the research director at the Resolution Foundation, said: “Although today’s data tells us that the economy is recovering as lockdown restrictions ease, it still has a long way to go. And that challenge will be bigger for the UK than for most other rich countries, given a larger economic hit.

“The longer-term impact of the crisis on living standards will depend on the scale of the rise in unemployment and how long it lasts. So the government’s priority should be providing support to those parts of the economy hardest hit by the crisis supporting jobs while also helping those unlucky enough become unemployed.”


Watch the video: Ζώδια Εβδομάδας 27 Σεπτεμβρίου έως 3 Οκτωβρίου Προβλέψεις από την. (July 2022).


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