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Learning Ancient Greek Helps Dyslexia, Research Suggests

Learning Ancient Greek Helps Dyslexia, Research Suggests


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Dyslexia is a disorder that can cause immense challenges for young people trying to learn how to read and write. In some instances, it can even affect the learning of mathematics or cause short-term memory problems . If left unaddressed, dyslexia can continue to cause complications in later life.

Current consensus suggests that dyslexia can be successfully managed, but not completely cured. Fascinatingly, some studies have found that learning the written language and alphabet of the Ancient Greeks can spur changes in brain development that help stave off the onset of dyslexia. And if the symptoms of dyslexia are already being experienced, learning the Ancient Greek alphabet can actually reduce their intensity or eliminate them altogether.

How Scholars Linked Dyslexia Treatment With Ancient Greek

Much of the knowledge about this area of dyslexia research comes from the work of two University of Toronto professors: Charles Lumsden, a biologist and associate of the university’s Department of Medicine and Medical Science, and the now-retired Derrick De Kerckhove, who was a professor of French and the one-time director of the university’s Marshall McLuhan Center of Communication Theory.

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These scholars first became interested in the relationship between written language and cognition in the 1980s, and in 1988 they edited a book of essays on the subject called “ The Alphabet and the Brain .”

In more recent research , they address the subject of dyslexia specifically, reporting on studies that have connected the learning of Ancient Greek to the diminution of dyslexic symptoms.

“The benefits that result from the formation and proper use of the human brain have long been recognized by teachers and scholars from all around the world, who have suggested the systematic teaching of the Ancient Greek language as a treatment for dyslexic children,” they wrote.

“Dyslexic people might have difficulties in oral speech, spatial and temporal orientation, or right-left distinction,” they continued. “Of course, these difficulties, qualitatively and quantitatively, vary from person to person, and the symptoms vary according to age. When people are able to activate more parts of their brain thanks to the use of a language, they are likely to fight back some of the symptoms of dyslexia.”

Needless to say, few schools in English-speaking countries are teaching young people to speak, read, and write in ancient Greek. But it seems that reviving the language of the great philosophers and playwrights of the ancient world could offer substantial benefits to children who might otherwise be at risk for learning difficulties .

Even when modern children who don’t have dyslexia study the Ancient Greek language their verbal intelligence and deductive thinking is accelerated. (Raphael / )

Beyond Dyslexia: General Benefits Of Learning Ancient Greek

In Greece, a psychiatrist and psychotherapist named Ioannis Tsegos sponsored a study that tested the impact of the ancient Greek language and alphabet on 25 child learners between the ages of eight and 12. With as little as two hours of dedicated instruction in Ancient Greek per week, these children showed measurable, accelerated progress in the areas of verbal intelligence and deductive thinking.

In contrast, children in a control group who were not given instruction in Ancient Greek, but were taught the same subject matter using the same methodologies, did not demonstrate any acceleration in their pace of learning.

None of the students participating in this study were suffering from dyslexia. Nevertheless, the results of this research suggest that learning the written language of the Ancient Greeks can help prepare the mind for learning, in ways that give those who have such an exposure an advantage over those who don’t. This is believed to happen because learning the Ancient Greek alphabet activates areas of the brain that might otherwise lie dormant, which could increase learning efficiency in general even as it helps offset dyslexic tendencies.

Ancient Greek writing looks surprisingly foreign and yet it has proven to be of help with dyslexia. (Awe Inspiring Images / Adobe Stock)

How One Man Overcame Dyslexia With Ancient Greek

One study that directly established the capacity of Ancient Greek to combat the effects of dyslexia involved an adult subject.

In a 2006 article published in the journal Literacy, Australian researcher Kate Chanock from La Trobe University reported on her work with a male subject who had suffered from severe lifelong reading difficulties related to dyslexia. This individual was anxious to learn more about the philosophy and literature of the Ancient Greeks, and under Chanock’s guidance set about to learn the Ancient Greek alphabet and language.

After pursuing this endeavor for six months, he experienced noticeable improvement in his ability to read and comprehend English, which was an unexpected benefit of his pursuit of Ancient Greek knowledge. Even though he’d been suffering the effects of dyslexia for many years, this man still responded quite favorably to being introduced to a complex linguistic system that was in use more than 2,000 years ago!

There are surprising connections between writing and how we think. ( simona / Adobe Stock)

The Surprising Connection Between Writing And Thought

Derrick De Kerckhove’s initial interest in the subject of the Ancient Greek language’s effect on cognition and learning was sparked by a conversation with Marshall McLuhan, the famous Canadian philosopher and media theorist whose work inspired the creation of the center that De Kerchhove once directed.

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Echoing the theories of well-known British classical scholar Eric Havelock, McLuhan explained to his protégé that the transition from oral to written philosophy in ancient Greece, which occurred primarily in the sixth through fourth centuries BC, may have spurred dramatic developments in the Greek theater.

The new emphasis on written language as opposed to oral transmission of complex ideas caused profound changes in Greek consciousness and psychology, the theory goes, making Greek tragedy a cultural response to an underlying psychological crisis among Greek thinkers and intellectuals.

In his work , Havelock focused on how the expanded use of the Ancient Greek alphabet and the written word impacted Greek philosophy, and most specifically the philosophy of Plato. He was convinced the impact was revolutionary, highlighting the immense power of the written word to affect perception of self and the world.

Havelock’s work remains controversial in academia. But the discovery that learning Ancient Greek can function as an antidote to dyslexia does land credence to the suggestion that the form of a written language can have a perceptible effect on conscious states.

In a sense, learning the language of the Ancient Greeks can at least in part bring that culture back to life, in a way that can have an actual impact on how learners perceive and relate to the world. Helping to reduce the intensity of dyslexic symptoms could be one such effect, but it may not be the only one.


Why is it Important to Study Ancient Civilization?

Why should children be taught ancient civilization? The common assumption among students is that learning more about U.S. history is more important than learning about things that happened thousands of years ago in other parts of the world. In actuality, the most important reason children should be learning about ancient civilization is because this subject will provide students with a foundation of knowledge, both in history and other subjects, which they can build their future knowledge on.

Relating Current Elements to Ancient Civilization

The beginnings of civilizations as well as the basic elements that make up civilizations are essential and they will be revisited in future social science classes and humanities classes. For example, some of the elements of the current world, such as class divisions, government, economic surpluses, religion and geography, all relate back in some way to ancient civilization. So, starting backward and working their way forward in history is much more beneficial in several ways, including how history is tied together.

Understanding the World in Which They Live In

An ancient civilization is a topic that helps students have a better understanding of the world. For example, when relating ancient civilizations to humanities and social sciences it helps students understand the economic and political commonalities and differences among cultures, people, and the environment. By understanding the progression, it will improve their understanding of the world and the people who live in it. Ancient civilizations provide insight into why and how history has unfolded and become as it is.

One of the most difficult things in teaching ancient civilization to students of any age is creating a program that makes historical study interesting. Many students also struggle with the ability to receive a massive amount of information that is included in an ancient civilization course. The good news is it can become an interesting course and there are some ways to help students keep the information. Flip cards and visual study guides are excellent tools to assist students with memorization as well as visually see the progression of the world. For example, visual study guides and flip cards are a great way to display how students are actually the center of the universe the guides for an ancient civilization course should start with the individual and gradually move outward self, family, their community, their state, the country and finally the world, which ultimately demonstrates that not only where they are today began in ancient civilization, but how history has evolved to better the world in which they live.

Ofrecemos una variedad de guías de estudio visual con atractivas visuales y definiciones educativas para estudiantes de secundaria. Únase a nuestra membresía en visual brand learning.com donde puede descargar nuestros productos por una pequeña cuota.


Learning Ancient Greek Helps Dyslexia, Research Suggests

Dyslexia is a disorder that can cause immense challenges for young people trying to learn how to read and write. In some instances, it can even affect the learning of mathematics or cause short-term memory problems. If left unaddressed, dyslexia can continue to cause complications in later life.

Current consensus suggests that dyslexia can be successfully managed, but not completely cured. Fascinatingly, some studies have found that learning the written language and alphabet of the Ancient Greeks can spur changes in brain development that help stave off the onset of dyslexia. And if the symptoms of dyslexia are already being experienced, learning the Ancient Greek alphabet can actually reduce their intensity or eliminate them altogether.

How Scholars Linked Dyslexia Treatment With Ancient Greek

Much of the knowledge about this area of dyslexia research comes from the work of two University of Toronto professors: Charles Lumsden, a biologist and associate of the university&rsquos Department of Medicine and Medical Science, and the now-retired Derrick De Kerckhove, who was a professor of French and the one-time director of the university&rsquos Marshall McLuhan Center of Communication Theory.


Free Resources to Learn Ancient Greek

Free Ancient Greek Learning Apps

Free Learning/Studying Apps

Tinycards – iTunes – Google Play – Tinycards is a free flashcards app, from the creators of Duolingo, which uses spaced repetition and nicely designed “decks” to help you learn anything, including foreign languages. Tinycards uses gamification, like Duolingo, which makes it fun and easy to use.

Memrise – iTunes – Google Play – Memrise is a really fast, fun and free language learning app/website that is sure to get you hooked. There is a visual flashcard component which also incorporates audio from a community of native speakers. Memrise uses spaced repetition and is really effective at drilling vocabulary and phrases into your memory.

Hoplite Challenge Ancient Greek Verb Conjugator – iTunes – Google Play – This app offers a verb conjugation game for intermediate to advanced students of Ancient Greek.

Biblical Greek Paradigms and Quiz App – Google Play – The app focuses on teaching the most common Biblical Greek vocabulary.

New Testament Greek Parser – Google Play – This app allows users to search for a New Testament Greek word and get the morphological parsing, lemmatization, and a short definition.

Koine Master – Google Play – This app teaches pronunciation, spelling, and vowels of the Koine Greek Alphabet to help students to read and understand the Greek New Testament.

Biblical Greek Flashcards – Google Play – This app helps users to memorize New Testament Greek vocabulary while drawing on the word sets from popular NT Greek textbooks.

Free Ancient Greek Dictionary/Translation Apps

Lumos Ancient Greek Lexicon By Liddell and Scott – iTunes – This app draws from the Liddell-Scott-Jones (LSJ) premier lexicon for Classical Greek which was first published in 1843.

Logeion Ancient Greek Dictionary by The University of Chicago – iTunes – This app can find any Greek or Latin word by accessing the entries in the many dictionaries and reference works of the Perseus Classical collection and the Perseus Digital Library at Tufts University.

Ancient Greek Lexicon – Google Play – This is a Koine Greek Lexicon of New Testament Words and simple Greek grammar lessons.

Ancient Greek Lexicon & Syntax – Google Play – This Ancient Greek Reference app offers a full, searchable copy of Liddell and Scott’s Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon and Jeffrey A. Rydberg-Cox’s Overview of Greek Syntax, and in addition to being completely free with no in-app purchases, it is also ad-free.

Free Ancient Greek Video Lessons

  1. Introduction to Homeric Greek – YouTube – A series of 15 videos based on the tutorial by the Kosmos Society.
  2. Learn Ancient Greek with Professor Leonard Muellner – YouTube – In this series of 118 videos Leonard Muellner, a former professor of Classical Studies at Brandeis University, teaches the content covered in a year-long college level Introduction to Ancient Greek course.
  3. Just Enough Greek – YouTube – This series of six videos provides a basic introduction to Ancient Greek and suggests resources for studying the language.

NativLang Greek Alphabet Tutorials – YouTube – Learn to write the letters of the Ancient & Modern Greek alphabets and see script forms throughout history over the course of 5 videos.

NativLang Byzantine Greek Script Tutorial – YouTube – Learn to write the cursive script found in late Classical & Medieval Greek writings over the course of 4 videos which cover the alphabet, diacritics (accents & breathing) and ligatures.

Elementary Ancient Greek Video Course By James Voelz – iTunes – These audio and video clips correspond to the Elementary Greek Course taught at Concordia Seminary by James Voelz. Pronunciation Helps, an audio orientation to the Fundamental Greek Grammar textbook by James Voelz, can be found here on iTunes.

Introduction to Biblical Greek Video Podcast – iTunes – Learn New Testament (Koine) Greek with your teacher John Pappas over the course of 43 beginner lessons.

Greek Video Courses by Dallas Theological Seminary – These courses are taught by Dr. Michael H. Burer.

  1. Elements of Greek 1 – iTunes – Basic principals of Biblical Greek.
  2. Elements of Greek 2 – iTunes – Basic principles of Biblical Greek. – This course takes the study of Biblical Greek to the next level.

Ancient Greek Lessons by Kostas Katsouranis – YouTube – Kostas aims to teach his viewers how to speak, write, and read like a real Ancient Greek.

Manesca Serial and Oral Ancient Attic Greek Lessons – YouTube – This Attic Greek course taught by Evan de Millner contains 10 videos to teach students the basics of Attic Greek.

Free Ancient Greek Audio Lessons

Elementary Ancient Greek Pronunciation Tutorial By James Voelz – iTunes – Pronunciation Helps is an audio orientation to the Fundamental Greek Grammar textbook by James Voelz.

Intermediate Biblical Greek Podcast – iTunes – Learn Intermediate New Testament (Koine) Greek with your teacher John Pappas over the course of 27 in-depth audio lessons.

Greek Club by Concordia Seminary – This extensive podcast teaches how to read the New Testament books of the Bible and translate them from Greek.

  1. Greek Club 2007-2008 – iTunes
  2. Greek Club 2008-2009 – iTunes
  3. Greek Club 2009-2010 – iTunes
  4. Greek Club 2010-2011 – iTunes
  5. Greek Club 2011-2012 – iTunes

Free Online Ancient Greek Courses

New Testament Greek Course by the University of Cambridge Language Centre – This free Greek course is a web-application developed by the University of Cambridge’s Theology and the Language Centre.

First Year Biblical Greek Course – This free advanced Greek course consists of 34 lectures by Bill Mounce and the duration is 8 hours.

New Testament Online Greek Course by Morling College – This self-paced course is offered online by Morling College (a school based in Sydney, Australia) and teaches the basics of Biblical Greek.

A Digital Tutorial For Ancient Greek – This tutorial was created by Jeff Rydberg-Cox of the Classical and Ancient Studies Program at the University of Missouri-Kansas City and is based on the First Greek Book by John William White which was published in 1896. The tutorial consists of 80 lessons with practice exercises and an incentive-based points system. Students can also consult the Morphology and Syntax Reference, General Vocabulary and Flashcard Download Area.

Elementary Biblical Greek Course – This course features 31 lessons and provides students with a basic understanding of New Testament Greek grammar.

Self Study Courses in Ancient Greek – These three Ancient Greek courses will prepare students to read New Testament Greek. The combination of the three courses is the equivalent of completing a year-long college course. Free users have access to all material except the instructional videos.

Hellenistic Greek Grammar Tutorial – This online tutorial by Michael Palmer offers an overview of Hellenistic Greek Grammar. His Alphabet tutorial is also a helpful resource that covers Modern, Classical and Hellenistic pronunciation.

The University of Texas at Austin Linguistics Research Center Greek Lessons – These high-quality and thorough courses in both Classical and New Testament Greek from UT Austin College of Liberal Arts are a phenomenal free online resource for students.

    – This course teaches students to read classical Greek texts. Other resources include a New Testament Greek Glossary, Dictionary and English Meanings Index, as well as a Printable Version of the Course. – This course teaches students to read New Testament Greek and includes important passages from the New Testament. Other resources include a New Testament Greek Glossary, Dictionary and English Meanings Index, as well as a Printable Version of the Course.

Other Free Ancient Greek Resources and Services

Introduction To Ancient Greek by the Open University – This Open University Tutorial provides students with a nice introduction to Ancient Greek. Students can learn the letters of the Greek alphabet and sentence structure, as well as familiarize themselves with the sounds of Greek.

Omniglot – This site specializes in providing information about languages and their alphabets and writing systems.

Hello World – Hello World has created hundreds of free language learning games and activities that cater to the way children learn best. The goal is to teach languages using cognitive immersion and to keep the process fun in order to increase learning potential. Approximately 1,300 vocabulary words are introduced over 70 different categories.

Verbix – Online Ancient Greek verb conjugator.

NativLang Classical Greek Lessons – This introduction to Classical Greek for beginners, explores the early inscriptions to Byzantine texts. The lessons teach pronunciation, the alphabet and examine the differences between scripts. Students can explore the Alphabet and Scripts, Byzantine Miniscule Writing, Ancient Greek Basic Phrases and Noun Pronunciation and Article Declensions and Extra Help For Students units.

Magic Typer Greek Keyboard – This website application allows users to type in Greek using the standard Greek keyboard layout.

Teach Yourself Ancient Greek Exercises – This website features exercises and answer keys to accompany the Teach Yourself Complete Ancient Greek textbook.

Perseus Collection Greek and Roman Materials – The Tufts University Perseus project focuses on the Greco-Roman language, history, and culture. This c ollection of classical Greek texts allows the reader to click on any word to find out the meaning.

Perseus Greek Word Study Tool – This online tool offered by Tufts University analyzes the morphology of Greek words.

Ancient Greek With Thrasymachus – This website was created by Ann Thomas Wilkins of Duquesne University and Alison W. Barker of St. Paul’s School to help students who are using the Thrasymachus textbook by C. W. E. Peckett and A. R. Munday. They provide extensive notes and explanations that directly correspond to the 32 chapters of the book.

Ancient Greek Tutorials by Donald J. Mastronarde – These tutorials were created by Donald Mastronarde with the assistance of the Berkeley Language Center of the University of California, Berkeley. Although the tutorials correspond directly to the Introduction to Attic Greek Textbook, they will be useful for all students of Ancient Greek to use with any textbooks.

New Testament Greek Tutorial – This simple website tutorial by Corey Keating provides a basic introduction to Biblical Greek grammar.

New Testament Greek Alphabet Tutorial – In addition to this alphabet tutorial which includes audio clips, a Greek Pronunciation Guide and a Greek Bible Passage Pronunciation Guide are offered.

Study Stack Flashcards – This website hosts plenty of flashcard sets for studying both Modern and Ancient Greek.

University of Victoria Ancient Greek Learning Resources – The University of Victoria in British Columbia, Canada created these Ancient Greek Learning Resources for their students and made them freely available online. Based on the reading of the Athenaze: An Introduction to Ancient Greek Textbook by Gilbert Lawall and Maurice George Balme, this site offers Vocabulary Exercises, Grammar Exercises, and Reading Exercises.

University of Chicago Nifty Greek Handouts – Helma Dik, a professor at The University of Chicago, created these handouts for her Greek classes to use as a learning supplement. The handouts are in PDf form and can be downloaded and printed. Topics covered include Verbal morphology, Nouns, Pronouns, the Definite Article, Syntax and more.

Dr. Rollinson’s Greek Tutorials – Dr. Shirley Rollinson, a professor at Eastern New Mexico University, created these tutorials for her students of Ancient Greek. She provides detailed and comprehensive coverage of important topics like Grammar, Vocabulary, and the Alphabet.

Pedalion – This online grammar focuses on syntax and helps students to learn and read Ancient Greek. Developed at the University of Leuven in Belgium, it offers a wealth of information including practice exercises.

Institute of Biblical Greek Learning Resources – This website offers a wealth of information for learning Ancient Greek grammar.

Transliterate – This free tool provides online Greek & Hebrew transliteration.

Modern Greek Language News and Media

EuroNews – EuroNews is a news media company that features news from a European perspective and offers content in 12 different languages online.

Deutsche Welle – German broadcasting company DW provides news in Greek.

Google News – Read the world news in Greek with Google News.

SBS Radio Greek Program – iTunes – SBS is an Australian broadcasting company that targets non-native English speakers and creates programming in many languages. This podcast allows you to listen to interviews, features and community stories from the SBS Radio Greek program, including Australian and world news.

VOA News – Podcast – Voice of America is an American broadcasting company that creates radio and television news in Greek.

IN.GR – This is a popular Greek online news website.

Kathimerini – This is the online version of the longstanding Greek print newspaper which also features an English edition.

Tovima – This is the online version of a prominent Greek newspaper which also has an English edition.

Eleftherotypia – A well respected online news source in Greece.

Ancient Greek Dictionaries and Pronunciation Guides

Forvo – This crowd-sourced site is a great tool to help with pronunciation as it allows you to listen to words and phrases spoken by native speakers.

Tatoeba – Tatoeba is a large, crowdsourced database of sentences and translations. This free resource allows you to search for a word and get results showing that word in sentences with translations.

Talkify – This free, multilingual website is a very interesting and valuable resource that allows you to listen to text in foreign languages. Simply insert a URL into the search field on Talkify and it will automatically detect the language and read the text of that website aloud in a natural sounding voice.

Liddell-Scott-Jones Classical Greek Lexicon – This is the online version of the Liddell-Scott-Jones (LSJ) premier lexicon for classical Greek which was first published in 1843. This online lexicon is searchable and provides links to the Thesaurus Linguae Graecae (TLG). A copy of the print version of the LSJ Lexicon is here.

Logeion – This online dictionary by the University of Chicago provides simultaneous lookups of entries in the Perseus Classical collection from Tufts University.

Kypros – This online Ancient Greek English dictionary allows you to search using Roman transliteration if you don’t have a Greek keyboard and Greek words are printed in both the Greek and the Roman alphabets.

Practice Ancient Greek with Native Speakers

Lang-8 – This free network is a nice tool to support your language learning. Native speakers are available to make corrections to your text and provide feedback. In return, you provide help to others.

HiNative – iTunes – Google Play – HiNative is an app brought to you by the creators of Lang-8 that allows you to ask questions to native speakers from around the world using your smartphone. HiNative was created to be used alongside Lang-8 and is different from Lang-8 in that it focuses on a Q&A type of learning while Lang-8 is a journal writing experience.

RhinoSpike – RhinoSpike is an interesting website that connects language learners from all over the world allowing them to exchange audio files to help improve pronunciation skills. It allows you to submit text that you would like to hear read aloud by a native speaker, and in turn, you receive the audio file. In exchange, and to speed up the process you can, in turn, provide audio files in your native language for other learners.

MyLanguageExchange.com – This online language learning community connects you with other learners so that you can practice speaking in your second language with a native speaker and vice-versa.

Italki – A community of over 2 million language learners that facilitates free language practice with native speakers. You simply exchange time teaching your native language for time learning a foreign language, making it mutually beneficial and free.

Free Ancient Greek Language Textbooks

Greek Ministry of Education Ebook Portal – This is the official website of the Ministry of Education for the distribution of ebooks to students. Books for Primary, Secondary and High Schools in Greece are available in a variety of digital formats, including interactive enriched HTML books, and all current editions are in a printable pdf format.

New Testament Greek Textbook by Dr. Shirley Rollinson – Dr. Rollinson, a professor at Eastern New Mexico University, has made her extensive textbook available free online with easy to use chapter links. She has also created an unaccented version of the textbook.

A User-Friendly Guide for Reading Ancient Greek – This book by Elaine Woodward & Marianne Pagos is a guide to reading and enjoying Ancient Greek texts.

Greek Grammar by William W. Goodwin – The online version of this reference grammar can be accessed here.

First Greek Book by John Williams White – The digital tutorial created at the University of Missouri and based on this book from 1896 can be found here.

A Brief Introduction to New Testament Greek by Samuel G. Green – This textbook is a primer which provides an outline of New Testament Greek grammar for beginners.

Greek Prose Composition – The Key to the exercises found in this classic Greek textbook by North and Hillard can be found here.

Syntax of Classical Greek from Homer to Demosthenes – This is the online version of the reference grammar book by Johns Hopkins professor Basil L. Gildersleeve. A digital copy of the book can be found here.

Greek Grammar for Colleges by Herbert Weir Smyth – The online version of the grammar can be found here

A First Greek Course by Sir William Smith – This book, written in 1909, contains accidence, syntax, and exercises for the study of Attic Greek. The key to the exercises can be found here.

First Greek Grammar Syntax by W. Gunion Rutherford – This book covers Classical Greek syntax for beginners.

First Greek Grammar Accidence by W. Gunion Rutherford – This book was written in 1891 by the Headmaster of Westminster.

New Testament Greek in a Nutshell by James Strong – iTunes – This book provides an outline of New Testament Greek Grammar with Reading Lessons for beginners.

Free Modern Greek Language Tests

Cactus Language – This UK based language study abroad organization offers free online language level testing.

Language Trainers – This language training company offers free online language level testing.

Goethe Verlag – Free tests in 25 languages and 600 language combinations. You will find 200 Greek vocabulary tests and 20 Greek crossword puzzles.

Hellenic American Union Placement Test – Once logged in you can access a list of online tests to evaluate your level of Modern Greek.

Listen and learn Online Greek Level Test – This private language school offers a Greek language level test with 50 questions.

Lexis Greek Language and Culture Center – This website offers a concise Greek language test.


THE ONE COURSE TO RULE THEM ALL (with materials)

Complete Course in Ancient Greek (Homeric/Attic/New Testament) by Dr. Walter Roberts takes you through the Book 1 of the Iliad (600+ verses) while covering the entirety of Ancient Greek grammar using Herbert Smyth’s Greek Grammar (Revised Edition). In-depth grammar lessons & guided translations of all of Iliad Book 1. He regularly posts guided translations of Attic & NT texts as well. Covers 5-6 semesters of university level Ancient Greek. CUNY's Intensive Summer Courses might have to step aside.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qJTq1rtB22U&list=PLv6lcWTkqoQgLuiUXHWE_b96RmvR4CIw7

Pharr’s Homeric Greek a Book For Beginner’s 4th Edition

Greek Grammar Revised Edition (1984 Reprint is my go to, revised by Gordon Messing) by Herbert Smyth

Syntax of the Moods and Tenses of the Greek Verb by William Goodwin

The Greek Particles by John Denniston

A Grammar of the Homeric Dialect by D.B Monro

Three Quarrels by Dr. Roberts (In-Depth, line by line commentary of Iliad Book 1)

Learn to Read Greek 1 & 2 with Workbook

Gareth Morgan's Lexis (very hard to find)

Greek: An Intensive Course, 2nd Revised Edition by Hansen & Quinn

Athenaze (almost Lingua Latina of Greek)

Charles Moss First Greek Reader (2nd Edition, No English).

Composition Manuals

Introduction to the Composition and Analysis of Greek Prose by Eleanor Dickey

Greek Prose Composition for Schools by A. E. Hillard and Michael Arthur North

Introduction to Greek Verse Composition by Arthur Sidgwick

Texts and Reading Tools

alpheios.net (This blew my mind. A robust reading tool in your browser or on your desktop recommended by u/logeion)

http://hypotactic.com/projects/ (Fully Parsed Latin & Greek texts w/ commentary recommended by u/logeion)

Attikos (iPhone App for Ancient Greek Texts, an improvement on Perseus.)

Perseus Digital Library (With vocab and parsing tools, lyric texts are disappointing).

Geoffrey Steadman’s Texts and Commentaries (Spectacular! Running vocab & extensive grammar notes for students)

Ancient Lyric & Prosody http://www.aoidoi.org/ (best lyric commentaries online. Pindar's First Olympic Ode fully parsed!)

Handouts & Synopses

u/Logeion Nifty Greek Handouts https://github.com/helmadik/NiftyGreekHandouts (really excellent summaries of key concepts and morphology)

Mastronarde’s Handouts http://atticgreek.org/ (useful for formatted morphology lists and accent tutorials)

http://en.pedalion.org/ superb online university grammar with tons of examples, terminology may throw people off. (I had a flashcard deck made based on this site which I'll share soon).

Youtube Channels & Audio Resources

AncientGreek.eu (IOANNIS STRATAKIS and his colleagues have produced the very best Ancient Greek audiobooks around. Their mastery of prosody is astounding. They are working on a complete Iliad & Odyssey as we speak)

LatinPerDiem (YouTube channel with Greek guided translations)

Daily Dose of Greek (YouTube channel with NT guided translations)

LOGOS K LOGOS (YouTube channel with NT guided translations in Spanish)

Corso di Grammatica Greca (Italian YouTube channel of Chiara Belluci)

Classica Nova / Otto Gradstein - Latijn leren zonder moeite! (wonderful guided translations of Latin and Ancient Greek in Dutch)

Vincenzo Panzeca (Italian YouTube channel focused on Latin. Professor Panzeca offers the best practical methodology for reading inflected languages (his Latin manual is legendary). Dr. Robert's guide: The Logic of Translation is a wonderful complement to this. Panzeca's method will give you intuitive and practical techniques for deciphering simple, compound and complex sentences. He'll show you how grammar rules actually help you deduce the structural cues in any inflected sentence).

Miscellaneous

Logeion https://logeion.uchicago.edu/lexidium (excellent online Latin/Greek dictionary, also has an app).

Ancient Greek Wiki (an amazing collection of online Ancient Greek resources maintained by scholars) http://greekgrammar.wikidot.com/

Auto Translate for YouTube™ captions (Chrome extension that provides machine translated subtitles for YouTube videos.). https://chrome.google.com/webstore/detail/auto-translate-for-youtub/codommceejgdnbmfednpkhkfnlbepckf

Hoplite Challenge (app for practicing rapid, accurate parsing of Ancient Greek verbs. This app is very accurate).

Liberation Philology (Ancient Greek app for practicing morphology--I can't vouch for accuracy, seems pretty good).

Anki Digital Flashcards, Quizlet, Memrise.

Reading Techniques (Work in Progress):

Identify ALL particles first (including but not limited to correlative/interrogative/temporal adverbs/adjectives, conjunctions, exclamations, etc. see Smyth Section 2770, p. 631)

Then other indicators of subordination or coordination such as infinitive or participial constructions.

Then Prepositions and the phrases they govern.

Then identify and parse verbs' Person Number Tense Mood Voice (always check for Primary or Secondary endings, individuate tense signs/stem, then potential euphonic transformations between the tense stem and primary/secondary endings. Much more to be said here.)

Individuate the clauses in a sentence or passage using the above information.

Check to make sure every subject has a verb(s) and every verb has a subject(s). i.e. Use the above information to deduce and then supply any elided material in a sentence.

Note: Particles often introduce, mark, or complement coordinate or subordinate clauses, and their absence from a sentence (often, not always) indicates the presence of a primary clause.

Note: Particles that introduce a subordinate or coordinate clause often end at the first appearance of a new verb, editor's punctuation, or both (compound/complex sentences complicate this so stay alert).

Note: Authors that rely on large ellipses (think of Livy, Pindar, Tacitus) still generally follow these rules, but the reader must become sensitive to the ways in which each author, genre, language finds unique modes of departing from these rules.

More resources to be added soon! Add your own in the comments!

Hello. Thank you for this excellent resource guide. I am sorry if my question is a bit too dumb or something, but would Athenaze be good for someone who has 0 knowledge of Ancient Greek (i.e I don't even know how to read it).

I have used the Lingua Latina books myself and I found them incredibly useful, so saying it's the most similar thing to Lingua Latina is, of course, appealing for me.

I've done a bit of digging on my own and I saw the Alexandros to Hellenikon (Link ) being recommended as well, and since I am Spanish I would not have any problem with it being in Spanish. Would you recommend it or do you think it's more apt for intermediate learners?

What I am getting at is, I want to study Ancient Greek for pure pleasure and I have 0 experience with it in any classroom environment (It was the same for Latin in my case) so I am trying to see which one of the resources recommended here would be better to start with my language learning journey, taking note of the circumstances that I just mentioned in this comment.

Thank you very much for the resources and I hope I am not asking too many dumb questions!

PS: As I said before, I am not a native speaker of English so pardon me for any mistakes I might have made while writing this question.

u/takakazuabe1
Ola. No existen preguntas tontas :)

You wrote your question beautifully. We native speakers should be thankful for wonderful speakers and writers of English like yourself. Remember that Vladimir Nabokov & Joseph Conrad were not native speakers but cultivated an English few if any natives will ever possess!

To your question,
It depends on your goals (which will change as you learn, so I'll write with an eye toward your future studies). Definitely use the Athenaze if the presentation is attractive. The most important thing to do is to start this adventure and stick with it! I believe there are some youtubers who have recorded the audiobook. I, however, do not know the quality of these offerings.

That said, if I were you, I would combine the Athenaze with a more systematic study of the grammar (Smyth is the standard reference in English, but there are several excellent Greek Grammars in Spanish). You get the best of both worlds and will be better prepared to sight read. I love Dr. Robert's course and pay tribute to it here. Nevertheless, as I hope the comprehensiveness of my guide suggests, you should incorporate numerous resources into any language learning program. No single method, textbook, course is truly the end all be all. Learning is a holistic process and shouldn't have one center. So yes, use Athenaze!! If you can read Italian, I would use the Italian version. Charles Moss's Greek Reader Second Edition would be the next step in a natural language learning method. Moss' introduction for students is incredible.

Disclaimer for the limited value of my advice:
I largely ignore the ideological contest between naturalistic immersion and more systematic methods of language instruction. Each has something to offer the student and both were used from the Renaissance up until the early 19th century. I personally achieve so much more when I approach learning with a pluralistic, pragmatic, and experimental attitude.

I'm sorry if my answer doesn't respond adequately to your question. My idea of "learning for fun" is probably perverse.


Ancient Greek Language Said to Reprogram The Brain

Several studies by Greek and foreign scientists have indicated that the Ancient Greek language, apart from being a living language, is also a therapeutic one, as it is said to posses the ability to cure many disorders, for example dyslexia.
According to a theory by British classicist Professor Eric A. Havelock, which is based on the ancient Greek philosopher Plato, the ancient Greek alphabet caused many abstract concepts to be conceived in the ancient Greek world, due to the unique brain activation of its users. The theory is presented along with many other conclusions by top foreign scientists, philologists and linguists in the 400-page volume ‘The Alphabet and the Brain: The Lateralization of Writing,” which was published in 1988 by Springer.
The scientific results that contribute to the theory of Havelock include:
1. The ‘Broca’s area’ in the left -usually- hemisphere of the human brain, which is linked to speech production, was activated more than usual due to the Greek alphabet, which for the first time had successfully employed vowels for writing.
2. The human brain was radically redesigned.
3. The above mentioned change in brain function caused a substantial change in the attitude of the ancient Greek alphabet’s users, for which the need of communication with other citizens through the art of theater appeared.
Another published scientific research by the team of Greek psychiatrist Ioannis Tsegos, showed that the measurable indicators of verbal intelligence and deductive thinking were accelerated across a group of 25 non-dyslexic children, who were taught Ancient Greek through accepted methods for two hours per week, between the ages of 8 and 12. In another equal group of children that weren’t taught Ancient Greek, the study revealed that the respective indicators were decelerated. Both groups were taught similar lessons.
Australian university researcher Kate Chanock, however, took Tsegos’ study a step further in her work “Help for a dyslexic learner from an unlikely source: the study of Ancient Greek” (2006: Literacy), the Australian researcher describes how she cured an English-speaking person from dyslexia by using Ancient Greek.
Meanwhile, children in elementary schools in Oxford, U.K., have been learning Ancient Greek since 2010 in addition to their other courses, while children of the same age in Greece aren’t learning ancient languages as they should, but instead are learning English.


What is Ancient History?

Every society has told stories about ancient times, but contemporary ancient history was the product of two main developments. The first was the invention of writing, which made scholarly study of the past possible, and the second was the explosion of knowledge about the world from the eighteenth century onward. Europeans responded to this explosion by inventing two main versions of antiquity: the first, an evolutionary model, was global and went back to the origins of humanity and the second, a classical model, treated Greece and Rome as turning points in world history. These two views of antiquity have competed for two hundred and fifty years, but in the twenty-first century, the evidence and methods available to ancient historians are changing faster than at any other time since the debate began. We should therefore expect the balance between the two theories to shift dramatically. We close by considering some possible areas of engagement.

Ancient history is the study of beginnings, and is thus organized around two central questions: 1) how to define the subject matter whose beginning is being studied and 2) what that beginning means for the world that the studiers live in. Across the centuries, the answers ancient historians have offered to these questions have changed significantly, largely in response to new evidence and new methods. But now, in the twenty-first century, the evidence and methods available are changing faster than at any time since the eighteenth century, and we should expect the answers ancient historians offer to do the same.

Ancient history has always been with us because, so far as we know, every society has had stories about its beginning. In the absence of writing, however, ancient history could never be much more than myth-making. Such stories usually describe the world's creation and peopling, as well as the origins of the particular group telling the myth. Since most adults in the world were still illiterate as recently as 1960, for most of our time on earth, these hazy, once-upon-a-time worlds–worlds which Aboriginal Australians describe with the wonderfully evocative term “the dreamtime”–were the only ancient history possible.

Writing introduced vastly superior evidence for antiquity, and every literate civilization has produced its caste of ancient historians. Remarkably, though, almost all of these groups did much the same as their predecessors with the available data, choosing a particular piece of their own ancient history and pronouncing it exemplary. The best example of this is probably the case of China, where, by the first century bce , scholars had already nominated the sage Confucius, who lived in the fifth century bce , as an ancient paragon of virtue. This anointing took place even though–or perhaps because–Confucius himself claimed merely to be reviving the virtues of a still earlier paragon, the Duke of Zhou, of the eleventh century bce : “I transmit but do not create,” Confucius wrote, “I am an admirer of antiquity.” 1 Confucius's popularity went up and down, but until well into the twentieth century, the texts attributed to him remained at the center of elite education in China.

In this way, each civilization produced its own version of exemplary ancient history, and until the eighteenth century, no serious challenge to this way of thinking about the distant past appeared. Only then, and only in Western Europe, did new facts make such stories of beginnings seem inadequate, and thinkers responded by coming up with two new ideas that have dominated ancient history ever since. The basic problem–and opportunity–was that ever since Marco Polo came back from Cathay in 1295, evidence had accumulated that there were things in heaven and earth that just did not fit into Europe's exemplary history and by the 1720s, groups of radicals, especially in France and Scotland, were responding to the anomalies by proposing a new paradigm.

What if, they asked, the hunter-gatherers and herders that missionaries, traders, and conquerors had met in other continents were actually survivals of how everyone had once lived? What if, rather than representing the beginning, Jesus and the other moral exemplars of antiquity were really just actors within one stage of history? And what if history had really begun with a worldwide state of nature and had then improved, until humanity reached the heights of enlightened Paris and Edinburgh?

This wild new theory, which its champions called philosophical history, shook up salons all over Europe. But by the 1750s, it was already generating a backlash. Philosophical history, its many critics (particularly in Germany and England) observed, had not actually proven that humanity had climbed from foraging, through herding and farming, on to the current age of commerce. To them, the whole endeavor should really be called conjectural history, not philosophical history.

What was needed, these critics argued, was not just-so stories about civilization's emergence from so-called “savagery,” but serious scholarship–like that being done at the time on the literature and sculpture of ancient Greece and Rome. Faced with the mass of new facts being generated by philologists and connoisseurs, conjectures about hunter-gatherers were revealed as not just unprovable, but also unimportant. What really mattered to these reformers was that two-and-a-half-millennia earlier, the Greeks had invented a unique civilization based on the principles of reason, freedom, and beauty. The towering intellects of ancient Greece–Homer, Plato, Aristotle, Thucydides–had wrenched humanity out of its long slumber. This, and not conjectures about Amazonian hunters, was the beginning we should be studying.

In one sense, classicists of the eighteenth century could legitimately be accused of trying to go back to an exemplary model of antiquity, but in another sense, they were moving far beyond it. They accepted the emphasis of conjectural historians on comparison with the new data coming in from other continents, but insisted that what that comparison actually showed was that the Greeks and Romans were incomparable. When Johann Joachim Winckelmann in 1755 contrasted the “noble simplicity and quiet grandeur” of the Greeks with the decadence of Etruscan and Egyptian art, he saw it as evidence for the complete superiority of the Greeks and by 1808, Wilhelm von Humboldt was ready to go much further. 2 “Our study of Greek history,” he wrote, is “a matter quite different from our other historical studies. For us, the Greeks step outside the circle of history…. We fail entirely to recognize our relationship to them if we dare to apply the standards to them which we apply to the rest of world history…. [F]rom the Greeks we take something more than earthly–something godlike.” 3

Unable to compete with classicists’ methodological sophistication and weight of data, conjectural history collapsed in the early nineteenth century. However, it is hard to keep a good theory down, and as information from other fields of scholarship continued to accumulate, it soon came back revived and revised. In the 1850s, Herbert Spencer, the first theorist to use the word “evolution” in something like its modern sense, argued that every field, from geology and biology to history and metaphysics, could be tied together in a single story of “the advance from the simple to the complex.” 4 Classical civilization was just one stage in a larger story, Spencer asserted, and “had Greece and Rome never existed, human life, and the right conduct of it, would have been in their essentials exactly what they are now.” 5

Many evolutionists, including Marx and Weber, granted Greece and Rome a bigger place in the story than this. However, by 1900, it was clear that cultural evolution, as the theory came to be known, was not going to collapse like conjectural history it was able to organize far too many facts, and its theoretical frameworks were far too robust for that. The invention of radiocarbon dating in the 1940s and the calibration revolution of the 1970s provided a global framework for comparisons, and fossil and dna data pushed the story of mankind's beginnings back millions of years.

Despite the high quality of much of the scholarship being done on Greece and Rome, the twentieth century was one long retreat for the classical vision of ancient history, in part because evolutionism proved vastly more exportable on the world stage. Herbert Spencer was one of the first English-language nonfiction writers to be translated into Chinese and Japanese, and his work quickly spawned Asian imitators. European classical scholarship did have a significant impact on the methods of Asian ancient historians (China's “Doubting Antiquity” movement and Japan's Tokyo and Kyoto Schools all drew inspiration from European Quellenforschung, the philological analysis of sources) but its core claims about Greco-Roman exceptionalism were largely ignored.

Within Western education, evolutionary and classical approaches to beginnings coexisted, the former mostly colonizing the new social science disciplines, and the latter dominating the older humanities fields. But even within the humanities, the classical vision steadily lost ground. The University of Chicago, where both the authors of this article once taught, is a good example. The university is probably best known for its commitment to the social sciences, but it has also been a staunch defender of the classical heritage. When the university was founded in 1892, it organized separate departments of Greek and Latin, because classics was too important a field to confine within a single unit the Classics Building, which opened its doors in 1915, is still one of the finest structures on campus. However, by the time we arrived in Chicago (Morris in 1987, Scheidel in 2000), Greek and Latin had been condensed into a single classics department, and its denizens had been penned into one corner of the second floor. There were rearguard actions, to be sure: In 1948, the history department began offering a wildly popular course on the history of Western civilization (which both of us once taught). This year-long sequence, running–as student wisdom put it–from Plato to nato , was required for all undergraduates for decades. Even in the 1980s, by which time the course was optional, most students took it anyway, and some still camped out overnight to get into their preferred sections. In 2003, however, the university closed it down.

In the mid-2010s, the sheer bulk of archaeological evidence organized by evolutionary models, the elegance of evolutionary theory, and the rhetorical power of narratives like Jared Diamond's Guns, Germs, and Steel (1997) or Yuval Noah Harari's Sapiens (2011) seem to have won over educated opinion. 6 Now, the origin story that seems to matter most began not in first-millennium- bce Greece and Rome, but with the invention of agriculture in the Middle East more than ten thousand years ago, or the evolution in Africa of modern humans more than one hundred thousand years ago, or of the genus Homo nearly three million years ago.

Given this view of history, Greece and Rome might be interesting topics, but they just are not very important ones. In Morton Fried's anthropological classic The Evolution of Political Society (1967), read by tens of thousands of college students, Greece and Rome each show up on just three of the 270 pages. They fare better in David Christian's hugely influential world history Maps of Time (2004), each cropping up sixteen times–but that book has 642 pages. 7

And yet at Stanford, where both of us now teach, nineteen of the twenty-seven professors whose research focuses on any aspect of humanity before ad 600 work chiefly on Greece and Rome. Our casual survey of websites suggests that Stanford is in no way unusual many American universities devote twice as many faculty to Greece and Rome as they do to the rest of the ancient world combined. Even if the lopsided distribution of resources is, in large part, a matter of institutional inertia, the battle over beginnings that opened in eighteenth-century Europe is clearly far from over.

That said, it might be time to take the battle in a new direction.

One of the most remarkable things about the 250-year-long back and forth between evolutionary and classical models of ancient history is how little each side has engaged with the other's arguments. This is most obvious in the classical model, which willfully ignores millions of years of history along with most societies that have ever existed. A century ago, classical historians regularly claimed that Greece and Rome were the beginning of the history that mattered, but nowadays the very few who do so tend to be dismissed as reactionaries or racists. Most classicists seem to be getting on with careful research, without worrying too much about the wider significance of their work, even though this seems likely to ensure the classical model's continued retreat.

However, a similar dynamic is at play within the evolutionary model. No one familiar with conventional history could fail to be struck by the way that evolutionary histories tend to have a lot to say about the agricultural revolution and the origins of states, and about the integration of the world in the early-modern period and the subsequent industrial revolution, but very little about anything that transpired in between. The geographer Alfred Crosby apparently speaks for many when he says, in his wonderful book Ecological Imperialism, that “between [2500 bce ] and [the] time of development of the societies that sent Columbus and other voyagers across the oceans, roughly four thousand years passed, during which little of importance happened.” 8

This flyover zone, of course, includes almost all of recorded history. It saw the world's population increase one hundredfold, the largest cities grow twentyfold, and writing, markets, money, wealth, inequality, empires, war, institutional capacity, and the stock of knowledge each transform the human experience. A version of history with a blind spot that obscures all of these changes is arguably little better than a version that cannot see anything outside the history of Greece and Rome.

It seems to us that this peculiarity of evolutionary history confronts classical historians–whichever part of the world they may work on–with both an opportunity and an obligation to respond. Evolutionary historians often seem to imply (or, in Crosby's case, state explicitly) that once agriculture began in the Near East after 9600 bce , everything else followed automatically, with cultural differences counting for little. This is a huge claim to make, with enormous implications for where the world might go in the centuries to come and no one is better placed than classical historians and archaeologists to find out whether it is true.

Rising to the challenge and obligation, however, will necessarily take classical historians far beyond the field's established comfort zone. Deep knowledge of particular cultures and mastery of their languages will remain important, but perhaps no more so than broad knowledge of world archaeology, quantitative methods, the social sciences, linguistics, and evolutionary theory. Conventional boundaries between prehistory and ancient history, ancient and medieval history, and cultural traditions will lose much of their meaning.

Equally important, engaging with the evolutionary vision will have consequences for how ancient historians are taught. Currently, in most institutions of higher learning, ancient history is part of a humanistic curriculum, emphasizing languages and the details of a specific literary, historical, artistic, and philosophical tradition. Simply adding more requirements to graduate programs that are already too long does not seem like a very good solution, but neither does turning training on its head, and abandoning the knowledge of primary sources and particulars that has always been classical history's strength in favor of the training that comparativists receive in the social sciences.

Possibly the least poor compromise would be to approach ancient history in a manner similar to how anthropology used to be taught. A graduate student interested in, say, how politics functioned in prestate societies was not expected to learn everything that could be known about every acephalous group on earth. He or she might, instead, combine a broad cross cultural survey with immersion in one specific group, learning its languages, living among its people, eating its food, and catching its diseases. Insights, the anthropologist Clifford Geertz once suggested, are not made by “regarding a remote locality as the world in a teacup or as the sociological equivalent of a cloud chamber,” but by recognizing that “small facts speak to large issues … because they are made to.” 9 Studies of the size of ancient Greek houses or Athenian worker's wages or the cost of raising foundlings as slaves in Roman Egypt do not have to speak to broader theories of how premodern economies work–but they can be made to. 10

So far, the topic that has attracted most attention of this kind is probably the “Axial Age,” which lends itself to a variety of approaches that could potentially combine classical and evolutionary thinking about ancient history. Struggling in the 1940s to come to terms with the moral crisis of his own day, the German philosopher Karl Jaspers coined the phrase to describe the middle of the first millennium bce because, he said, this had been the axis around which the world's history had turned. From China to the Mediterranean, the centuries on either side of 500 bce saw an explosion of moral thinking, producing Confucianism and Daoism in China, Buddhism and Jainism in India, and Greek philosophy and the Hebrew Bible in the Mediterranean region and Near East. This really was the beginning of the history that counted, Jaspers asserted, because this was when “man, as we know him today, came into being.” 11 Jaspers did not gloss over the deep differences between Chinese, Indian, Iranian, Israelite, and Greek thought after all, no one could possibly mistake Plato's Apology for Confucius's Analects. He observed, however, that all the way from Greece to the Yellow River, intellectuals began debating similar questions at roughly the same time. The new thinkers tended to be similar kinds of people, usually coming from the lower ranks of the elite and from small, marginal states rather than from great empires. They also tended to reach the conclusion that while the nature of goodness was indefinable, people could still transcend the evils of this world. Attaining ren (Confucius's “humaneness”), nirvana (the Buddha's “snuffing out” of consciousness), dao (Zhuangzi's “way”), or to kalon (Plato's “good”) was a matter of self-fashioning, looking for the answers within rather than waiting for kings or priests to provide them. The secret, however, always involved compassion. Do unto others as you would have them do unto you, the Axial Age founders said, and you will change the world.

For some decades, social scientists seemed to find the Axial Age more interesting than humanists did, perhaps because the roughly simultaneous appearance of similar intellectual systems in such distinct cultures, without much evidence of diffusion, was easier to analyze in evolutionary terms than within the culturespecific frameworks that classical historians favored. 12 There were exceptions, but in the last few years classical scholars have begun claiming the topic as their own. 13 Few scholars have the talents to master the relevant skills thoroughly enough to become experts on the primary sources from multiple Axial Age civilizations (the eminent historian of ancient science Geoffrey Lloyd is the obvious exception), but there are other ways to approach the problem. 14 For instance, scholars might set focused studies of the Presocratics, Upanishads, or Mencius against the larger Axial background, or, more broadly, ask why there was no Axial Age in the second millennium bce , or the New World. 15

In their teaching and research, ancient historians deal with one of the most consequential phases of human cultural evolution, a time when modestly sized local groups of people–villages, towns, chiefdoms, and the like–were increasingly absorbed into ever-larger networks of cooperation and, more often than not, control. Models of social organization differed considerably, from small but cohesive independent communities to large but heterogeneous and highly hierarchical empires. The ancient Mediterranean produced both of these outcomes in paradigmatic form: the Greek city-state culture, the largest of its kind in all of history, and the Roman Empire, the biggest empire ever to exist in that region, which, in an added twist, had grown out of a small city-state.

For several reasons, these developments are best studied from a comparative perspective. Since empires tended to appear wherever ecological conditions allowed, the driving forces behind the rise and fall of any one of them cannot properly be assessed in isolation. That modern scholars have managed to propose more than two hundred different reasons for the fall of the Roman Empire strongly suggests that conventional academic focus on just a single case is simply a dead end, and that comparative analysis of a process that occurred so many times in history promises far more compelling results. 16

Moreover, the tension between city-state and empire as competing and complementary forms of sociopolitical organization throws light on a very big problem of history more generally: the relationship between state formation and human welfare. Our colleague Josiah Ober has powerfully argued that the pluralism of the Greek city-state culture delivered important benefits, especially when it sustained participatory democracy, as it did in classical Athens. 17 At the same time, one of us has found that human social development peaked whenever some of the largest premodern empires were at the height of their power. 18

Understanding the costs and gains associated with different forms of macrosocial cooperation has been a major challenge across academic disciplines, and ancient history has much to contribute. After all, the modern West grew out of a highly competitive state system that had gradually emerged from the wreckage of the Roman Empire. Unlike in other parts of the globe, where failed empires were often replaced within a few centuries by new empires, no comparable behemoth ever again took over all of temperate Europe. The Roman state and the Chinese Qin and Han Dynasties had built huge empires that became more similar as they matured, and yet Europe and China embarked on very different trajectories once these early superstates had failed. 19 The subsequent divergence between the periodic restoration and abatement of universal empire in East Asia (and elsewhere) and enduring polycentrism in Europe requires explanation, a task only made possible by systematic comparison.

Global contextualization of this kind forces ancient historians to reformulate their own questions: If the Roman Empire was unique, why did it appear in the first place? By privileging its decline and fall over its rise, have we trained our sights on the lesser challenge? Are there specific environmental obstacles to empire that the Romans somehow overcame–and how could we possibly hope to know them unless we also look at other parts of the world? Most importantly, does the lasting disappearance of the Roman Empire help explain one of the most momentous historical transformations, the Industrial Revolution, and the resultant “Great Divergence” between the West and the rest of the world? The reasons for this breakthrough remain contested, with some scholars favoring relatively recent or contingent factors and others arguing for the relevance of more deeply entrenched, long-term causes. 20 By fostering competition and preserving alternative pathways of development, did the absence of anything like the Roman Empire in the West prepare the ground for modernity? 21

However one chooses to approach these big questions, both the Axial Age and the successive political and economic divergences between Europe and the rest of the world strike us as areas where twenty-first-century classical historians have important things to say about the beginnings of the world we occupy and where it might be going next, as classical and philosophical historians alike tried to do in the eighteenth century. But just as both these groups of scholars did a quarter of a millennium ago, if today's classical historians want to make contributions to explaining beginnings, we will need to raise our game, master new evidence, methods, and questions, and recognize that the ancient world was much bigger–and ancient history much longer–than our predecessors made them seem.


Learning Ancient Greek Helps Dyslexia, Research Suggests - History

The present endeavour aims at the clarification of the concept of the logical consequence. Initia. more The present endeavour aims at the clarification of the concept of the logical consequence. Initially we investigate the question: How was the concept of logical consequence discovered by the medieval philosophers? Which ancient philosophical foundations were necessary for the discovery of the logical relation of consequence and which explicit medieval contributions, such as the notion of the formality (formal validity), led to its discovery. Secondly we discuss which developments of the modern philosophy effected the turn from the medieval concept of logical consequence to its most recent conceptions, such as the semantic, syntactic, axiomatic and natural deductive approaches? Thirdly we examine which are the similarities and the differences between the logical concepts of consequence, inference, implication and entailment? Furthermore, we ask what kind of relation signifies the concept of the logical consequence? That is to say, which is the analytic definition of the consequence relation R between the premises p1, p2…pn and the conclusion c of a formally valid argument? Finally, we focus on the respective answers given through the developments in proof theory by David Hilbert and Gerhard Gentzen.

Keywords: medieval philosophy, consequence, validity, formality, inference, implication, proof theory, semantic, syntactic, natural deduction

The present endeavour aims at the clarification of the concept of the logical consequence. Initia. more The present endeavour aims at the clarification of the concept of the logical consequence. Initially we investigate the question: How was the concept of logical consequence discovered by the medieval philosophers? Which ancient philosophical foundations were necessary for the discovery of the logical relation of consequence and which explicit medieval contributions, such as the notion of the formality (formal validity), led to its discovery. Secondly we discuss which developments of the modern philosophy effected the turn from the medieval concept of logical consequence to its most recent conceptions, such as the semantic, syntactic, axiomatic and natural deductive approaches? Thirdly we examine which are the similarities and the differences between the logical concepts of consequence, inference, implication and entailment? Furthermore, we ask what kind of relation signifies the concept of the logical consequence? That is to say, which is the analytic definition of the consequence relation R between the premises p1, p2…pn and the conclusion c of a formally valid argument? Finally, we focus on the respective answers given through the developments in proof theory by David Hilbert and Gerhard Gentzen.

Keywords: medieval philosophy, consequence, validity, formality, inference, implication, proof theory, semantic, syntactic, natural deduction

In 1930s, Paul Dirac proposed an explicit model of vacuum as infinite sea of particles, the so-ca. more In 1930s, Paul Dirac proposed an explicit model of vacuum as infinite sea of particles, the so-called Dirac sea. He assumed that what we consider to be a vacuum is a situation in which all states of negative energy are filled up and all states of positive energy are empty. The role of vacuum in quantum theory became central after Dirac’s theoretical commitment to the unification of the quantum-theoretical with the relativistic physics. Einstein had introduced a physical theory that rejected the existence of ether as physical substance, focusing instead on the role of the field. The various disagreements to his theory were forcefully confronted by the intervention of scientific models, such as Dirac’s, who insisted on an abstract, mathematical and experimentally corroborated conception of antiparticles, antielectrons, etc. Contrary to most of the quantum field theorists, Dirac tended to adhere to a realist worldview, taking as a starting point the views of Einstein (photon as light quantum) and J. J. Thompson (corpuscles), and the nucleic or holey theory of matter proposed by Hertz and Sommerfeld. It is no coincidence that the theoretical approaches to vacuum maintain a constant and actual significance in modern physical theories.

Keywords: vacuum, Dirac, electron, antiparticles, positron, realism, model

Call for Book Chapters: “Modern Theory and Metatheory of Defense Technology and Science” Vernon . more Call for Book Chapters: “Modern Theory and Metatheory of Defense Technology and Science”

Vernon Press invites book chapter proposals on the thematic of Modern European and Atlantic Theory and Metatheory of Defense Technology and Science. The Pursuit of Power as an interaction between society, technology and armed forces, as the historian McNeill defined it, is the starting point of this problematic. This edited book, however, should try to supervene and unify the dispersed historical perspectives, by questioning its background methodological presuppositions and discussing the following theoretical directions: International and Strategic Studies, Modern Weapons Technology, Psychological Operations and Crisis Management, Mass Communication and Propaganda, Policy and Law Enforcement, Fortifications and Automation Technology, Air Force and UAV, Situational Awareness, Radar and Lidar, Innovation, Invention and Discovery, Centers, Peripheries and Technical Progress, Space Science, Technical Expertise and Training, Nutrition, Medicine, Transports and Engineering.

Relevant to the above mentioned theoretical research interests are also the metatheoretical topics of Innovation Projects in Scientific Reasoning, ranging from Quantum Logic to Space Exploration. A philosopher of modern science investigates many different types and modules of Innovative Reasoning, which has proved to be essential for planning Defense Technology Projects: Theory of Truth and Evidence, Logic of Relations and Semiotics, Modal Realism and Mathematical Philosophy, Ethics and Decision Making, Criteriology, Quantitative and Qualitative Methods of Research, Quantum Logic, Grades of Equations, Computational Networks, Non-Commutative Mathematics, Topology, Artificial Intelligence, Cognitive Science, Neurobiology, Astrophysics and Cosmology. Such metatheoretical research hallmarks are indispensable for philosophical research on Defense Problems in present times and for the future scientific community.

The time scope of the chapters of the proposed edited book should focus on historical evidence from American Independence until the present, such as the bureaucratization of violence, the frontier expansion, the military impact of the industrial revolution, the industrialization of war, the emergence of the Military-Industrial Complex in Great Britain, the World Wars, the balance of power, the arms race etc. The aforementioned points of interest need deeper investigation, because they play a significant role in contemporary defense science, in the quest for realistic, anthropological, structural or many worlds interpretations of technological innovation, furthermore, in inductive and deductive logic, theory and metatheory of policy making in international levels. The dynamic linkages and the interdependency between induction and deduction, theory and metatheory is one of the most important research problems for the Philosophy of Physical and Human Sciences of Defense.


Contents

The three most important standards of the ancient Greek monetary system were the Attic standard, based on the Athenian drachma of 4.3 grams (2.8 pennyweights) of silver, the Corinthian standard based on the stater of 8.6 g (5.5 dwt) of silver, that was subdivided into three silver drachmas of 2.9 g (1.9 dwt), and the Aeginetan stater or didrachm of 12.2 g (7.8 dwt), based on a drachma of 6.1 g (3.9 dwt). [1] The word drachm(a) means "a handful", literally "a grasp". [2] Drachmae were divided into six obols (from the Greek word for a spit [3] ), and six spits made a "handful". This suggests that before coinage came to be used in Greece, spits in prehistoric times were used as measures in daily transactions. In archaic, pre-numismatic times iron was valued for making durable tools and weapons, and its casting in spit form may have actually represented a form of transportable bullion, which eventually became bulky and inconvenient after the adoption of precious metals. Because of this very aspect, Spartan legislation famously forbade issuance of Spartan coin, and enforced the use of iron ingots, called pelanoi in order to discourage avarice and the hoarding of wealth. [4] In addition to its original meaning (which also gave the diminutive "obelisk", "little spit"), the word obol (ὀβολός, obolós, or ὀβελός, obelós) was retained as a Greek word for coins of small value, still used as such in Modern Greek slang (όβολα, óvola, "monies").

The earliest known electrum coins, Lydian and East Greek coins found under the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, are currently dated to between 625 and 600 BC). [7] These coins were issued either by the non-Greek Lydians for their own use or perhaps because Greek mercenaries wanted to be paid in precious metal at the conclusion of their time of service, and wanted to have their payments marked in a way that would authenticate them. These coins were made of electrum, an alloy of gold and silver that was highly prized and abundant in that area.

In the middle of the 6th century BC, King Croesus replaced the electrum coins with coins of pure gold and pure silver, called Croeseids. [7] The credit for inventing pure gold and silver coinage is attributed by Herodotus to the Lydians: [8]

So far as we have any knowledge, they [the Lydians] were the first people to introduce the use of gold and silver coins, and the first who sold goods by retail.

The Greek world was divided into more than two thousand self-governing city-states (in Greek, poleis), and more than half of them issued their own coins. Some coins circulated widely beyond their polis, indicating that they were being used in inter-city trade the first example appears to have been the silver stater or didrachm of Aegina that regularly turns up in hoards in Egypt and the Levant, places which were deficient in silver supply. As such coins circulated more widely, other cities began to mint coins to this "Aeginetan" weight standard of 6.1 g (3.9 dwt) to the drachm, other cities included their own symbols on the coins.

Athenian coins, however, were struck on the "Attic" standard, with a drachm equaling 4.3 g (2.8 dwt) of silver. Over time, Athens' plentiful supply of silver from the mines at Laurion and its increasing dominance in trade made this the pre-eminent standard. These coins, known as "owls" because of their central design feature, were also minted to an extremely tight standard of purity and weight. This contributed to their success as the premier trade coin of their era. Tetradrachms on this weight standard continued to be a widely used coin (often the most widely used) through the classical period. By the time of Alexander the Great and his Hellenistic successors, this large denomination was being regularly used to make large payments, or was often saved for hoarding.

Archaic Greek coinage seems to have had a very wide circulation in the Achaemenid Empire. [9] Many of them were discovered in coin hoards throughout the Achaemenid Empire such as the Ghazzat hoard and the Apadana hoard, and also very far to the East, such as the Kabul hoard or the Pushkalavati hoard in Ancient India, following the Achaemenid conquest of the Indus Valley. Generally, Greek coins (both Archaic and early Classical) are comparatively very numerous in the Achaemenid coin hoards discovered in the East of the Achaemenid Empire, much more numerous than Sigloi, suggesting that the circulation of Greek coinage was central in the monetary system of those part of the Empire. [9]


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Watch the video: Live in Latin! How to use the Athenaze books to learn Ancient Greek. Ancient Greek lesson (May 2022).


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