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ALFRED HOLT COLQUITT, CSA - History

ALFRED HOLT COLQUITT, CSA - History


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GENERAL ALFRED HOLT COLQUITT, CSA
VITAL STATISTICS
BORN: 1824 in Walton City, GA.
DIED: 1894 in Washington, DC.
CAMPAIGNS: Seven Days, Fredericksburg, Antietam, Petersburg.
HIGHEST RANK ACHIEVED: Brigadier General.
BIOGRAPHY
Alfred Holt Colquitt was born on April 20, 1824, in Walton County, Georgia, the son of a Democratic Senator. Educated in local schools, he attended the College of New Jersey (now called Princeton), and graduated in 1844. After studying law, he was admitted to the bar in Georgia in 1846, and joined he army to fight in the Mexican War. He left the service as a major and staff officer, and returned to his law practice. In 1849, he was appointed assistance secretary of the Georgia Senate, and was elected to the US House of Representatives in 1852. Due to his wife's illness, he left politics in 1854, but returned after her death in 1855. Serving in the Georgia legislature, he was a presidential elector for John C. Breckinridge in the election of 1860. In 1861, he was a delegate to the Georgia secession convention, and followed his state when it chose to secede from the Union. Colquitt was chosen colonel of the 6th Georgia Infantry in May of 1861, serving throughout the Peninsula Campaign. He saw action at Williamsburg and in the Seven Days' Campaign, and held brigade command under Maj. Gen. Daniel H. Hill at Antietam. Appointed a brigadier general to rank from September 1, 1862, he served at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, then served in North Carolina in 1863. In 1864, he was transferred to Florida. Colquitt helped the Confederacy achieve victory at Olustee by leading one of Brig. Joseph Finegan's brigades. He also took part in the Battles at Drewry's Bluff and the Siege of Petersburg . Colquitt surrendered in North Carolina in May of 1865. After the war, he became licensed as a Methodist preacher, but chose not to serve in the ministry. Returning to practice law and farming, he fought against Reconstruction. In 1876, he became governor of Georgia by the largest majority in state history up to that time. Six years later, he was elected to the US Senate, in which he remained until his death in Washington, D.C., on March 26, 1894.

Colquitt reentered politics in 1859, when he was elected to the Georgia legislature. A strong secessionist, he served as a presidential elector for the ticket of John C. Breckinridge and Joseph Lane in the 1860 election, representing the southern wing of the Democratic party that demanded an unequivocal endorsement of slavery. The following year Colquitt was elected as a delegate to the Georgia secession convention, which voted to break from the Union in January 1861. When war was declared in April, he enlisted in the Confederate army as a captain of infantry and rose quickly in the ranks to major general. His greatest military success came in 1864 when he commanded infantry at the battle of Olustee, Florida, a humiliating though strategically insignificant defeat for the larger and better-equipped Union army.

After the Civil War Colquitt returned to his Baker County plantation, one of the largest in postbellum Georgia, and resumed his law practice. He was also an industrial promoter of railroads and other industries and invested in the Georgia Pacific Syndicate. Again active in the Georgia Democratic party, he stridently opposed congressional Reconstruction policies. In 1870 he served as president of the Democratic State Convention and later that year was elected president of the state agricultural society.


Biography [ edit | edit source ]

Colquitt was born in Monroe, Georgia. His father, Walter T. Colquitt was a United States Representative and Senator from Georgia. Alfred graduated from Princeton College in 1844, studied law and passed his bar examination in 1846. He began practicing law in Monroe. During the Mexican-American War, he served in the United States Army at the rank of major. After the war, Colquitt was elected as a member of the United States House of Representatives from 1853 to 1855. He then served in the Georgia state legislature. In 1861, he was a delegate to the state secession convention.

At the beginning of the Civil War, he was appointed captain in the Sixth Georgia Infantry. He saw action in the Peninsula Campaign and the Seven Days' Battles. He rose through the ranks to become a brigadier general in 1862. He led his brigade under Stonewall Jackson in the Battle of South Mountain, Battle of Antietam, the Battle of Fredericksburg, and the Battle of Chancellorsville. After Chancellorsville, some questions arose about Colquitt's performance during that battle and his brigade was transferred to North Carolina in exchange for another. His brigade was transferred again in the summer of 1863 to protect Charleston, South Carolina. In February 1864, Colquitt marched his brigade south to help defend against the Union invasion of Florida, and was victorious in the Battle of Olustee. After this battle, Colquitt's brigade rejoined Robert E. Lee's Army of Virginia. Late in the war, the brigade returned to defend North Carolina where Colquitt surrendered in 1865.


Reconstruction

Life after the Civil War for Confederates would be tumultuous and frustrating. Thanks to President Abraham Lincoln, slavery has been abolished, and with that movement came a slew of economic challenges. This wasn’t made any easier by the Union’s Anaconda Plan to choke off supplies and goods to the Confederacy, as well as Sherman’s raid through George on his way to Savannah. Families that Colquitt would have been well acquainted with would have struggled to make ends meet and rebuild their lives.

Colquitt returned to his home in Baker County. Farther south and out of Sherman’s warpath, he would have still felt the pangs of the Reconstruction Era. Democrats, like him, were not looked upon favorably by the new Republican agenda that had swept through the former Confederate states. Federal soldier occupation of some towns became mandatory as unrest between southerners and newly freed slaves escalated.

Alfred Colquitt

However, a turnaround took pace in the 1870s. Colquitt defeated Republican candidate Jonathan Norcross for governor of Georgia in 1876, reclaiming the Georgia government for the Democratic party. The battle to keep that position, however, was an uphill climb. Rumors from embittered Republicans and even Democrats who felt ousted by Colquitt, spread rumors that the new governor had some illegal and underhanded dealings with the Northeastern Railroad. He wasn’t the only politician to be investigated for corruption, as John B. Gordon – whom he fought beside at Antietam – and Joseph E. Brown were put under the microscope. He was found clean and innocent by the legislative committee.

His platform against Reconstruction most likely had a hand in keeping himself in power. In 1880, he was reelected to serve another term, and the debt in the state was significantly reduced under his leadership. In 1883, over twenty years later, Colquitt was able to return to his place in the Senate as a Democratic Representative where he and his father had faithfully served their home state of Georgia.

Colquitt would serve two terms in the senate until 1892. At the age of 68, he suffered a stroke that left him partially paralyze. He recovered and continued his political work until he suffered a second one in March of 1864, which rendered him completely incapacitated. He died two weeks after the stroke in Washington D.C, on March 26th.

The lawyer, politician, and Civil War soldier is now buried in Rose Hill cemetery in Macon, Georgia.


Collection Description

Historical Note

The Alfred Holt Colquitt Chapter of the United Daughters of the Confederacy is a part of the Georgia Division of the United Daughters of the Confederacy.

Scope and Content Note

The collection consists of photocopies of material collected and compiled by members of the Alfred Holt Colquitt Chapter of the United Daughters of the Confederacy, 1833-1976. The majority of the collection consists of typescripts and photocopies of Civil War letters, diaries and service records. Also included are brochures and maps of significant Georgia Civil War sites. Of particular interest is the diary written by Basil Llewellin Neal, a Confederate soldier in the 12th Georgia Infantry Regiment, while imprisoned at Point Lookout, Maryland in 1863-1864. The collection also includes several letters that describe the Andersonville prison in Georgia.


ALFRED HOLT COLQUITT, CSA - History

Grave of General Alfred H. Colquitt
A hero of the War Between the States, General
Colquitt also served in the U.S. Senate, U.S. House
of Representatives and as Governor of Georgia.

Some Civil War Sites in Georgia.

Atop a terrace in Macon's Rose Hill Cemetery
can be found the grave of Georgia's famed
Civil War general, Alfred Holt Colquitt.

The commander of the famed Colquitt's
Brigade, he led Confederate troops in some
of the most desperate fighting of the war. Part
of Stonewall Jackson's command, Colquitt
and his men fought at the Battles of South
Mountain, Antietam, Fredericksburg and
Chancellorsville. Sent south to defend the
Carolina's, Colquitt's Brigade rapidly moved
south to reinforce Southern forces in Florida
fighting against an invasion by Union troops.

It was in Florida on February 20, 1864, that
he was given field command of the roughly
5,000 Confederate troops that terribly mauled
a Union army led by General Truman
Seymour at the Battle of Olustee, Florida
(also called the Battle of Ocean Pond).

It is a little known fact that based on the
number of troops involved, Olustee was the
bloodiest major defeat for the Union during
the entire War Between the States.

As word of the victory in the Florida pine
woods spread across the South, Colquitt
was hailed by the people of his home state
as "The Hero of Olustee." A historical marker
standing by his grave notes this distinction (

Floridians, it should be noted, consider that
state's General Joseph Finegan to be "The
Hero of Olustee." On the battlefield, in fact,
two almost identical markers pay tribute to
the two generals, one placed by Georgians
and the other by Floridians.

In truth, both men can rightly be called the
Heroes of Olustee, as can the thousands of
men who fought under their command.

Alfred H. Colquitt was born in Walton County,
Georgia, on April 20, 1824. A graduate of
Princeton College, he was admitted to the
Georgia Bar in 1846 and practiced law in his
hometown of Monroe. He served as a staff
officer during the Mexican War and rose to
the rank of Major during that conflict.

After returning home from Mexico, Colquitt
was elected to a single term in the United
States House of Representatives, but did not
seek reelection. Instead he served in the
Georgia legislature and was a delegate to
the state's Secession Convention.

Casting his lot with the Confederacy, Colquitt
reentered the military service, first as a
captain in the Sixth Georgia Infantry. Word of
his ability spread as he rose through the
ranks, fighting in the Peninsula Campaign
and at the Battle of Seven Pines. He was
promoted to Brigadier General in 1862. He
eventually attained the rank of Major General.

Following his surrender in North Carolina at
the end of the war, General Colquitt returned
home to Georgia where he became a fierce
opponent of the Reconstruction era policies
that were inflicted upon the South.

He was elected Governor of Georgia in 1876,
spearheading a movement by the Democrat
Party to regain control of the state. He was
reelected to a two-year term in 1880 after his
party achieved dominance and drafted a new
constitution.

General Colquitt was elected to the United
States Senate in 1883 and served in that
body until his death on March 26, 1894, at the
age of 69.

A patriot to the South, his home state and the
nation, Alfred Holt Colquitt was mourned by
friends and former enemies alike. He was
buried at Rose Hill Cemetery in Macon,
Georgia, where his body remains at rest
today.

Rose Hill Cemetery is located in downtown
Macon at 1091Riverside Drive. The cemetery
is the final resting place for Colquitt and
hundreds of other Confederate soldiers, as
well as famed Southern musicians Duane
Allman and Berry Oakley of the Allman
Brothers Band.


--> Colquitt, Alfred Holt, 1829-1894

U.S. Congressman and Senator, Confederate major general, governor of Georgia, from Troup County, Ga.

From the description of Papers, 1846?-1889. (Duke University Library). WorldCat record id: 19347877

From the description of Letter signed : Atlanta, Georgia, to Senator John B. Gordon, 1877 Mar. 17. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270537594

Alfred Holt Colquitt (1829-1894), lawyer, Confederate officer, U.S. Representative (1852-1854), Georgia Governor (1876-1882), and U.S. Senator (1883-1894), born in Walton County, Georgia.

From the description of Alfred Holt Colquitt scrapbooks, 1853-1894. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 38478085

Alfred Holt Colquitt (1824-1894) was born 20 April 1824 in Monroe, Walton County, Georgia. He was the son of Walter Terry Colquitt (1799-1855). He studied law at Princeton College (now Princeton University) and graduated in 1844. He retuned home to Monroe, Georgia. where he immediately began practicing law. He saw military action in both the Mexican-American War (1846-1848) as a major and the Civil War (1861-1865) rising to the ranks of brigadier general and major general. Prior to his service in the Civil War, Colquitt began his career in politics. In 1853 he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives and served until 1855 and later served in the Georgia House of Representatives in 1859. Colquitt was an avid secessionist and supporter of states rights and was part of the 1861 Georgia Secession Commission. Following the war, Colquitt was elected governor of Georgia and served from 1876-1882. In 1883, Colquitt ran as a Democrat and was elected to the U.S. Senate. He served in this position until his death on 26 March 1894. He is buried at the Rose Hill Cemetery in Macon, Georgia.

From the description of Alfred H. Colquitt papers, 1844. (Georgia Historical Society). WorldCat record id: 270683266


Alfred Holt COLQUITT, Congress, GA (1824-1894)

COLQUITT Alfred Holt , a Representative and a Senator from Georgia born in Monroe, Walton County, Ga., April 20, 1824 attended school in Monroe and graduated from Princeton College in 1844 studied law admitted to the bar in 1846 and commenced practice in Monroe, Ga. served as a staff officer with the rank of major during the Mexican War elected to the Thirty-third Congress (March 4, 1853-March 3, 1855) was not a candidate for renomination in 1854 member, State house of representatives 1859 member of the State secession convention in 1861 entered the Confederate Army and served throughout the Civil War, attaining the rank of major general Governor of Georgia 1876-1880 reelected under a new constitution for two years elected as a Democrat to the United States Senate in 1883 reelected in 1888 and served from March 4, 1883, until his death in Washington, D.C., March 26, 1894 chairman, Committee on Post Office and Post Roads (Fifty-third Congress) interment in Rose Hill Cemetery, Macon, Bibb County, Ga.


Photo, Print, Drawing [Alfred Holt Colquitt, 1824-1894, half length, facing left in Confederate officer's uniform. Col., 27th Georgia Inf.]

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  • Reproduction Number: LC-USZ62-62500 (b&w film copy neg.)
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Gov. Alfred Holt Colquitt

ALFRED HOLT COLQUITT, son of a Georgia representative and senator, was born in Walton County, Georgia, on April 20, 1824. He graduated from Princeton University in 1844, studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1846, and established a legal career in Monroe, Georgia. During the Mexican War, he served as a soldier, and advanced to the rank of major and staff officer. He also saw active duty during the Civil War, serving as a captain in the Confederate army. He attained the rank of brigadier general and major general, participated in the Seven Days’ and Peninsula Campaigns, and commanded troops to victory in the battle of Olustee in Florida. After the war, Colquitt, who became a certified Methodist preacher, combined his faith with his career in public service. He entered politics in 1853 as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives, an office he held until 1855. He also served in the Georgia House of Representatives in 1859, was a member of the 1861 Georgia Secession Convention, and was president of the Democratic State Convention. Colquitt won the 1876 Democratic gubernatorial nomination and was elected Georgia’s 34th Governor. In 1880 he was reelected under a new constitution for two more years. During his tenure, a new state constitution was sanctioned, state finances were restructured, taxes were cut, as well as the floating and bonded debts. After leaving office on November 4, 1882, Colquitt served as a member of the U.S. Senate from March 4, 1883, until his death. Governor Alfred H. Colquitt died on March 26, 1883, and he is buried at the Rose Hill Cemetery in Macon, Georgia.


Watch the video: Georgia Ports Authority State of the Ports: Charting the Course (July 2022).


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