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Clear Glass Dish from Pompeii

Clear Glass Dish from Pompeii


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Given the broad nature of the question, what follows is more of a (roughly chronological) potted history than a comprehensive account of dishwashing before detergents became widely available. All highlighting is mine.

SHORT ANSWER

Among other things: sand, fats, ash, alkaline salts (which are often used in modern detergents), cuttlefish bone, horsetail, mare's tail, soapwort, hay mixed with ash, running water, hot water, wire scrubbers, cloth, baking soda and sugar sand (maple sap debris).

Note that, in medieval Europe at least, cutlery was limited to a spoon and a knife, the knife being a personal item which was often just wiped clean after meals. Also, the 'plate' used may have been a trencher made of bread which was consumed after everything else had been eaten.

The Encyclopedia of Kitchen History by M. E Snodgrass mentions dishwashing a number of times, starting with

The job began in prehistory with sand-scouring of pottery and utensils at the nearest water source.

The Babylonians are believed to have been the first to discover what we might recognize as soap but there are conflicting opinions as to whether it was used to clean kitchenware (for example, see here and here). Other ancient civilizations such as the Egyptians also had soap. There were different mixtures, perhaps to suit different purposes. The ingredients of these mixtures included two or more of: animal and vegetable fats, ash, alkaline salts and oils.

During the the Zhou Dynasty (1050 BC to 256 BC), the Chinese

discovered that using the ashes of certain plants could be used to remove grease. This method is recorded in “The Rites of Zhou,” a sacred document detailing the religious ceremonies of this early Chinese dynasty.

Although the context indicates laundry, it is not inconceivable that they used a similar kind of soap for greasy kitchenware as well.

The Romans (but not, it appears, the Greeks) had soaps but they seem to have used other substances for cleaning objects:

In the Roman villa, slaves cleaned tabletops and scoured stone and tile floors with handfuls of sand. Another useful substance, cuttlefish bone, served as a cleaning abrasive, as did the horsetail (Equisetum), commonly called pewter wort, scouring rush, or shave grass, a plant with jointed stems suitable for scouring wooden utensils, dairy vessels, and pewter.

Later, back in China during the Sui dynasty (581 – 618) we see what may be the first visual representations of dishwashers at work.

Ceramic models of dishwashers. Unfortunately, there isn't enough detail to determine what washing 'aids' (if any) they might have used.

Moving on into the European Middle Ages, there is a reference to the use of hot water:

At hospices, taverns, and castles, cauldrons heated over an outdoor fire functioned as sinks for dishwashing and bathing and for scalding pigs.

Snodgrass goes into more detail for medieval castles:

workers washed crockery in a separate tub, polished brass skillets with rhubarb juice or sorrel, and scoured pewter with Hippuris vulgaris, an aquatic plant with densely whorled shoots commonly called mare’s tail. Delicate china and crystal were rinsed carefully in a vessel padded with soft cloth to prevent chips.

She also cites John de Garland’s Dictionary (1220)

Garland names the dishes that were most frequently scrubbed: cauldrons and becdasne (spouted pots with handles), pitchers, plates, frying pans, basins and fèrals (water jugs), mortars, trenchers, saucers, vinegar bottles, bowls and spoons, gridirons, graters, meat hooks, and chafing dishes.

For convenience, the cook or servant often washed dishes on a wood bench by the well and pulled handfuls of soapwort planted nearby to facilitate removal of grease.

Also, Melitta Weiss Adamson, in Food in Medieval Times, says

Cloth was used both for cooking and, along with scouring sand or ashes and tubs, for cleaning the kitchenware.

Finally (for the European medieval period), as vinegar and sand were "used to clean and polish flexible mail armor", they were probably also used to clean metal pots, pans and utensils.

From the Renaissance period, Snodgrass states:

In a trough or stone sink, the dishwasher poured well water from a bucket or basin or opened faucets to admit a steady flow of water from a cistern or town fountain for cleaning and rinsing. The dreariness of the job in a stifling, windowless area remained the norm into the late 1800s. A series of devices aided the housewife or scullery servant in cleaning and sanitizing dishes. Dishmops, powdered abrasive cleansers and polishes, plate scrapers, and wire and rubber scrubbers simplified the job a soap saver — a wire mesh box on a handle — saved the soap bars from sinking to the bottom of the dishpan and dissolving into a gluey mess.

Hay and ash boiled in an iron vessel loosened rust, which the dishwasher could then remove by scouring the pot with soap and sand. Stove surfaces, the bane of kitchen cleaning, required sandpapering and oiling.

In the 18th century English navy,

In his spare time, the cook made a seawater-soluble dishwashing soap by pouring oil, resin, fish glue, soda, and oxalate of potash through soapwort in a perforated tray into a tub.

Somewhat surprisingly, and contrary to (for example) The American Women's Home (1869), another book (from 1879)

says no soap because “while soap is a very good thing to take away dirt from our hands and clothes, it is a very nasty thing to eat” – use baking soda instead and sugar sand for scrubbing

When on a month-long kayaking trip back in the USSR, we did not bring dish detergent with us, so I have a peculiar opportunity to tell the history of soap from personal experience -)

You scrub dishes with sand to remove hard residue (e.g., the burned food strongly attached to the walls of the pot).

You remove fat using ash (we cooked on open fire, so ash was plentiful). You might be surprised to learn that ash+fat=soap, so it worked perfectly.

PS. Note that neither method is nice to your skin (sand is abrasive and soap is basic).

People still often wash dishes without dish detergent. Searching for the situation in India, I found a very detailed article on the market situation:

(Ignore the incorrect 2013 “last updated” date at the top the article is from 1997 as mentioned at the end and on the author page.) The market has changed a lot since the article was written 2+ decades ago (as has society: the article frequently mentions “housewives”), but it has some revealing data on what was used (other than detergent) in 1997 in India:

a market that has barely progressed beyond rudimentary home-made scourers. Even today, almost 70 per cent of housewives prefer free-to-use proxies like charcoal, ash and even foil medicine wrappers. And among the remaining 30 per cent the penetration of branded scouring powders is very low.

[…]

Globally, the dishcare market is predominantly hand dishwash in nature. Even in other advanced markets, the penetration of dishwashing machines is as low as 10 per cent. Of course, in India, the dishwashing machine penetration is minuscule.

[…]

For one, about 70 per cent of the Indian households did not buy a separate dish scourer – they generally use proxies like charcoal, ash, mud, or even detergent powder and bars for clothes.

It also discusses different forms of dishwashing detergents, which I just discovered may not be common elsewhere:

All these different delivery forms were associated with unique benefits: the powder is associated with abrasiveness, the liquid with the attribute that it is good for the hand, and the bar which combined the benefits of both.

(And the fourth one the article discusses, which is a paste.)

On how much detergent there was even in the 30%, and the circumstances in which more was needed:

Most of the scourers in this segment had almost zero detergent content in them but sold on the plank of their abrasiveness.

[…]

The first hint that there was actually a place for another new scourer was the fact that the existing scourers could not tackle the problem of burnt vessels or stubborn grease which mirchi, haldi and other kinds of masala housewives used tended to leave behind.

[…]

myriad branded and unbranded products along with proxies like mud and ash. That was fine as long as the housewife was using copper or brass utensils. But when she graduated to more sophisticated utensils like enamelled cook-and-serve utensils and non-stick crockery, or, for that matter, glass and chinaware the need for a more sophisticated dish washing medium arose

This may also answer your question to some extent: if not using non-stick cookware, glass or porcelain, (and if you don't have much grease, and if you don't care about what happens to your or your maid's hands,) then sand/charcoal/ash/etc. will actually do.

My grand mother was using wood ashes from the stove mixed with water and the Dishes where finally cleaned with clean water ? then the " dirty water" was given to the pigs ! absolutely ecological !

An Account of a Strange Kind of Earth, Taken up Near Smyrna, of Which is Made Soap, together with the Way of Making It (c.1695)

From Philosophical Transactions (1683-1775), Volume 19 (free to read online).

Bringing Soap Earth employs 1000 Camels, every Day throughout the Year, or rather 1500 daily for eight Months the four Summer Months being too hot for Camels to Travel.

An ordinary Soap House produces a thousand Dollars a year clear Profit, communibus Annis.

This article which was published in 1695 talks about the manufacture of soap in a manner which would suggest that soap was a common commodity, at least in 17th century Greece and surrounding regions (i.e. places where you would find camels for transporting it).

So I suspect that prior to the invention of modern dish detergents, people could have used regular, natural soap and that soap has probably been around in various forms, for quite a long time.

And there are dish soaps on the market today, for people who prefer washing dishes with something more natural and environmentally friendly than detergents.

As for sponges, Greek fishermen have been harvesting natural sponges from the sea since antiquity:

The history of sponge diving in Greece dates back to antiquity. The sponge and its usage is mentioned in the Homeric epics of Iliad and Odyssey, as well as in the writings of the philosopher Aristotle. The philosopher Plato also refers to sponge as an article that was commonly used in bathing, mostly by the rich people.

And again, natural sponges are still popular with many people. In Tarpon Springs, Florida, where there is a prominent community of traditional sea sponge divers of Greek ancestry, natural sea sponges are still being harvested and sold in specialty shops.

Disclaimer: this is less an answer about the history but about the chemistry of dish washing - which I hope will serve as complementary info on some of the other answers.

I think a few points of chemical background may help understanding the historical solutions to the dishwashing question.

With the exception of burnt residue (for which mechanical/abrasive treatment is most efficient), dish washing is about cleaning carbohydrates (starch/sugar), lipids (oil, grease) and protein from the dishes.

    The carbohydrates are easiest: they are readily dissolved or emulsified by plain water, so no problem at all.

To get rid of the lipids, you can use an emulsifier (that term really just means any substance that helps form/keep lipid droplets in water). Soaps can do this, but also e.g. lecithin (remember reading: emulsifier soy lecitin - see the soybean powder in the comment. Although I doubt that historically edible substances were used much for dish washing - but some types of food already contain sufficient emulsifier so no additional emulsifier is needed for dish washing).
In alkaline/basic condiditons, fats (triglycerides) hydrolyze into glycerol and fatty acids which are deprotonated (anions) in the alkaline solution and thus have a hydrophilic end. These fatty acid anions act as emulsifier, so hydrolysis of a small part of the lipids is sufficient for dish washing.

Now, proteins that stick to the dish because they are denatured by heat (frying, baking - cooking also leads to heat denaturation, but due to being in water it doesn't stick to the dish as much) are the hardest problem for dishwashing. However, you can hydrolyze also these (for practical dishwashing: sufficiently to get the remainder off mechanically). Proteins hydrolyze easily in alkaline/basic conditions, but also in acidic conditions. Acidic hydrolysis is typically slower, though. A modern alternative is using enzymes.

Thus bases do help tremendously with dish washing. Two alkaline substances that have been around for very long time are

The ancient use of lye for soap-making and as a detergent is the origin of the English word, deriving from Proto-Germanic *laugo and ultimately from the Proto-Indo-European root *leue-, "to wash." Relatives in other Germanic languages, besides their words for lye, include the Scandinavian languages' words for Saturday (laugardagur, lördag, lørdag), meaning "washing day".

Plaster: There is archeological evidence that Pre-Pottery Neolithic B humans used limestone-based plaster for flooring and other uses.[12][13][14] Such Lime-ash floor remained in use until the late nineteenth century.

Lime (CaO) is not so good for dish washing, because its soaps [see below] are unsoluble in water, they form scum. This is why with hard water (containing much Ca²⁺) much more soap is needed than with soft water.

washing soda (Na2CO3) according to Wiki on dishwashing liquid was used before the modern dishwashing detergents were invented. It is the main component of natron, which was produced (among other uses also for washing and soap production) in ancient egypt.
Sodium carbonate became cheap with the invention of first Le Blanc and then the Solvay process, so we're talking 19th century here.

Soaps are the salts of fatty acids. They are produced by hydrolyzing fat in alkaline (NaOH or KOH) solution, e.g. lye from ash. For cleaning purposes, sodium (Na) and potassium (K) soaps are used. Being a salt of a strong base (KOH, NaOH) and a weak acid, they still react basic, so for dish washing they also have the property of inducing hydrolysis of protein in addition to being emulsifier for lipids.

Others have already given citations of ancient (Mesopotamia, Egypt etc.) knowledge of soap. Let me add that until sodium carbonate became a cheap industrial product, soap was a luxury article rather than a commodity (Ullmann's encyclopedia of industrial chemistry on Soap). From that I'd guess that the every-day dish washing was not done with anything so fancy*.

Also, not so ancient history from middle Europe (great-grandma's time, anecdata): Cast iron pans were wiped, but removing grease/fat was not even intended. If they were washed to remove grease, they were greased again immediately after to prevent rusting. This meant a taste to everything that we'd nowaday refuse as rancid but which was normal in former times (compare haut-goût). Again, burnt residue was and still is best removed with mechanical means: abrasives such as sand or steel wool.
Wooden plates were rinsed but also probably not washed to be totally grease-free. (Other cultures use one-way articles like banana leaves). In general, there was more cooking (and in general more soup/stew/porridge types of food) and less frying. And cooking pots are comparably easy to clean without (much) detergent if you start immediately or let them soak.

Hard on the hands So alkaline substances help removing lipids and proteins. But in that they do not distinguish between the lipids that protect our skin and the lipids that should be washed away, nor between the food residue proteins that should be hydrolyzed and the protein of our skin. Which is why they are "hard on the hands". Modern dishwashing machine detergents do use this (possibly also enzyme-based degradation/digestion of proteins). As liquids for manual dishwashing are supposed to be in contact with exposed skin, they are neutral to slightly acidic. To achieve this, instead of soaps other tensids are used (e.g. organosulfates). This leaves the emulsifying properties, but does not help with the proteins. Instead, more mechanical action (scrubbing) plus soaking as needed are employed. Emulsifying (surfactant) properties means they still remove the lipids from your skin (excess lipids are added to toilet soaps to leave some lipid on your skin, but for dishwashing this would leave a lipid film also on the dishes).

Side note: while alkaline chemicals such as Na2CO3 or real soaps are more dangerous to the skin, they are at the same time more easily biodegradable than their more skin-friendly replacements in the manual dishwashing liquid.

In particular, after neutralizing which will often occur rather automatically as we have lots of acidic food (think fruits, wine, vinegar, sour milk etc.), all that is left is the fatty acid (as it occurs naturally during degradation or digestion of triglycerides) and the salt of, say, citric or acetic acid (also occuring naturally). So small amounts of those soaps or washing soda or ash in dishwashing water do not raise concerns for feeding the "dishwashing pig" (German: Spülsau) mentioned in @Defrance's answer.

* Little House in the Big Woods (which although it is autobiographic fiction I think can be trusted on the matter of soap use) describes 1870s settlers in the US distinguishing between the holiday use of "store soap" and homemade "slimy, soft, dark brown soap that Grandma made and kept in a big jar to use for common every day" (probably produced from wood ash and animal fat - there's also a description of using wood ash for alkaline treatment of corn/maize). But soap is mentioned only for toilet use, not for dishwashing.


How Do You Identify Antique Glass?

A glass or antiques expert can verify the age of the glass. Valuable antique glass is characterized by signs of wear, defects and rough mold edges.

Antique glass typically shows signs of wear on its base and in any gilded decorations. Different types of small scratches at varying depths indicate the glass was used over a long period of time.

Defects such as chips and bubbles are common in antique glass. Chipping can signify age, especially if the chips have differing degrees of sharpness and shininess. A sharp, shiny chip is more recent than a smooth, dull chip. Bubbles are typical in old pattern glass, not cut glass, though they also appear in modern glass, sometimes by design. In general, new glass has fewer bubbles than old glass.

Two other signs that glass was made using out-of-date methods are grit and asymmetry. Antique glass made from molds might contain grit, whereas modern glass does not. Some old glass also has an asymmetric shape from uneven cooling.

Pressed or molded glass often has seams that show the edges of the mold. In early methods, glass molds were clamped together until some of the glass oozed out, leaving rough seams in the glass. Modern methods also create mold seams, though they are much smoother than in antique glass.


The Jeannette Glass Company History and Patterns

The Jeannette Bottle Works Company was established in 1887, in Jeannette, Pennsylvania. In 1898 the Jeannette Bottle Works company was succeeded by the Jeannette Glass Company and got its start producing hand made bottles. With the advent of the O&rsquoNeill semi-automatic bottle blowing machine in 1899, Jeannette soon found itself producing wide mouth jars, relishes and other useful pressed glass items like automobile headlamp lenses. By 1904 the company was involved in producing items for medical and home use. Jeannette continued to grow and expand, and by 1924 they began producing lovely table and kitchenware. This innovative company was one of the forerunners in producing the machine made, colored pressed glassware, we collect today. Many of the Depression Glass patterns that we know and love were produced by the Jeannette Glass Company. Some of the more popular patterns produced were Adam, Anniversary, Cherry Blossom, Doric, Doric and Pansy, Floral Poinsettia, Floragold, and Iris. Jeannette established its hold on the kitchen item market early in the Depression Era, designing and producing many kitchen items in pink, green, crystal, delphite, jadite and ultramarine. They were one of the major producers of Jadite and Delphite Glassware. Many of the most desirable Depression Glass kitchen items were made by The Jeannette Glass Company. In 1961 Jeannette bought the old McKee plant which was located in Jeannette and continued to produce glassware for both wholesale and retail businesses, until 1983 when they closed their doors.

Jeannette Patterns From the Depression Era Through the 1950s

Adam - (1932-1934) (Crystal, Delphite Green, Pink, Yellow) - Adam was a best selling pink and green Depression Glass pattern produced by the Jeannette Glass Company. Adam is a pretty stylized floral pattern. This pattern was made primarily in pink and green. A few pieces of Delphite and opaque yellow have been found. These pieces were experimental and make a nice addition to a collection, but there is not enough of either color to make a set. We have seen quite a few pieces of crystal over the last 40 years. You might be able to put together a small set of crystal, but it would be impossible to put much of it together. The Adam butter has been reproduced. The quality and color of the new butter dish cannot compare to the older Depression Glass butter dish. For more information click on the link to the right. Jeannette Adam

Anniversary - (1947 - 1949) (Crystal, Iridescent 1970's and later)( Shell Pink 1958-1959) - Anniversary is an interesting pattern produced by the Jeannette Glass Company in various colors from 1947 until 1975. Although Anniversary was introduced in the 1940's, many people lump Anniversary in with Depression Glass because it was listed that way in the first Depression Glass books, and because the pink color is the same hue that was used in Jeannette's earlier Depression Glass patterns. Since this pattern was produced for so many years, it has found it's way into many homes and is very popular today. Recently, this pattern crystal vase with a frosted foot has bee seen in retail outlets with a "Made in India" label.

Camellia - (Late 1930s - 1951) (Crystal, Iridescent, Gold Trimmed Crystal) - Camellia is a striking luncheon set that was introduced in the late 1930s and continued to be produced until the early 1950s There is an embossed "Camellia" flower in the center area of each piece. This pattern was sold as a luncheon set, however the large 9" plate could easily be used as a dinner plate. Numerous bowls, plates, and trays can be found in this pattern, a snack plate with a matching cup, trays, tidbits, candlesticks, and a sugar and creamer were made. Tom and Jerry sets in both crystal and iridescent may be found. The Tom and Jerry set was made without the lettering and was sold with a 50s Deco metal stand to create a punch set.

Cherry Blossom - (1930-39) (Crystal, Delphite, Jadite, Green, Pink, Some Experimental Colors) - Cherry Blossom was produced by the Jeannette Glass Company . Cherry Blossom may be Jeannette's most collected Depression Glass pattern. This pattern was made primarily in Pink, and Green and Delphite, although quite a few crystal pieces can also be found. Cherry Blossom is one the largest Depression Glass sets that was made in Delphite. Cherry Blossom is one of the few patterns that has a child's set. The child's set was made in the pink and delphite colors. Unfortunately, a poor quality reproduction of this entire miniature set in both colors has been on the secondary market for many years. Collectors should also be aware that reproductions of other pieces in this pattern are prolific and many have been on the market since the late 1970's. Reproduced pieces include footed salt and pepper shakers, the covered butter dish, the footed water tumbler, cup and saucer, two handled tray, cake plate, dinner plate, cereal bowl, large round berry bowl and the divided oval tray. Since this is a fairly extensive list, collectors need to familiarize themselves with the differences between the old and new pieces. Jeannette Cherry Blossom Catalog Reprints and Lists

Cubist - (1929-1933) (Amber, Blue, Crystal, Green, Marigold Iridescent, Pink, White Milk Glass, Ultramarine, Yellow, Experimental Orange Slag) -The Jeannette Glass Company produced Cubist. Cubist is found mainly in crystal, pink, and green, although you do find an occasional piece in the other colors listed above. Pitchers and tumblers are elusive and command a high price. Cubist is often confused with Fostoria's American pattern. Cubist items were mass produced, machine made Depression Glass while Fostoria's American pattern was hand made. Fostoria's pieces were refired and have a sheen, or shiny luster to them.

Dewdrop - (1953- 1955) (Crystal) - This crystal Jeannette Pattern, from the mid 1950's was a very popular luncheon set. The stylish 8" "Maple Leaf" luncheon plate, and the combination snack trays, with an indent for holding a mug impressed friends and family. The fact that this pattern had several unique and useful serving pieces is why many homemakers loved buyng and using Dewdrop. Very few luncheon sets from this time period had a revolving lazy susan, or a large punch bowl. Unique pieces like this helped to make this pattern a success.

Doric - (1930-39) (Crystal, Delphite, Green, Pink, Ultramarine, Yellow) - Doric was a very popular Depression Glass pattern in both green and pink. It was produced by the Jeannette Glass Company during the 1930s. This striking pattern is hard to find in good shape. Sharp mold lines around the pattern edges were often damaged--even during production. Pink and Green are the only colors in which one can complete a full set. Delphite colored items were limited to serving pieces. Hard to find pieces in pink and green include cereal bowls, cream soups (green only), and tumblers. Doric and Pansy (shown below), is a similar pattern. It can be found in pink and collectors often use pink Doric and Pansy pieces with their pink Doric collections.

Doric and Pansy - (1937 - 1938) (Ultramarine, Pink, Crystal) - Ultramarine Doric and Pansy is very much like the Doric pattern shown above. In addition to the border of embossed squares in the Doric pattern, Doric and Pansy has an embossed pansy in every other square. The vertical boxes above, or below the border, also have pansies embossed in them. A complete setting of this pattern can found only in the Ultramarine color. Only a few pieces were made in Crystal and Pink. Jeannette marketed Doric and Pansy in both England and Canada. It was extremely popular in these areas and more of it can be found overseas and in Canada. With the advent of internet selling more pieces of this lovely pattern began showing up on venues such as Etsy and Ebay. It seemed for a time that there were plenty of the harder to find items to go around. These pieces have since disappeared from the market place and the hard to find pieces are again something you will have to search to find.

Floragold - (1950s)(Crystal and Iridescent, Some Some Shell Pink Milk glass) - Floragold is one of the Jeannette Glass Company's most popular 1950s patterns. This lovely pattern was a full service dinnerware set. Most pieces of Floragold were mass produced and were r easonably priced, but some items such as the cereal bowls, ice tea tumblers, and vases were sold as extra pieces. These pieces were higher priced originally and not as many customers purchased them for their sets. They are harder to find as a result. Jeannette also experimented with this pattern and produced quite a few items that were never put into the regular line. These pieces include several compotes and a seldom seen butter dish. If you are lucky enough to find one of these rare pieces be prepared to pay a premium.

Floral - (Poinsettia)-(1931-1935) (Black, Crystal, Custard, Delphite, Jadite, Pink, Red, Yellow) - Floral was named "Poinsettia by collectors before the company name was known, and the name is still used today. This beautiful floral pattern came in an array of colors. While quite a few items came in Delphite, the only colors that you can complete a set in are pink and green. Floral was one of the larger Depression Era Sets produced by the Jeannette Glass Company. S ome of the harder to find pieces include the lemonade pitcher, lemonade tumblers, juice pitcher, flat juice tumblers, vases, and vanity items. Shakers have been reproduced in this pattern, but are of poor quality when compared to the real thing. The good news is that the footed shakers are the only item that have been reproduced.

Harp - (Crystal, Crystal with Gold Trim, Light Blue) - (1950s) -This pattern was dubbed Harp by collectors because of the pretty harp like musical design that decorates each piece. Harp was used as a small luncheon or serving set. Pieces include a footed cake stand, cups and saucers, coasters, ashtrays, and a 7" plate. Harp is another 1950s pattern that can be found in the Shell Pink Milk Glass line.


Hex Optic (Honeycomb) - (1928 - 1932) (Green, Pink, Ultramarine, Iridescent) - The Hex Optic design was eye catching and popular among buyers during the 1930s. As a result, many glass companies made a Hex Optic pattern. Jeannette put a twist on their designs by incorporating them into a kitchen glassware line with an accompanying luncheon set. They made a 10&rdquo sandwich plate in this pattern so if someone wanted to use the set as a dinnerware pattern it was possible. Some of the kitchen items that can be found in both Pink and Green include an ice bucket with a reamer top, a stacking leftover set, and mixing bowls. Additional Information

Holiday (Buttons and Bows)- (pink 1947-1949) (Crystal, Iridescent 1947-1975) ( Shell Pink 1958-1959) - The Jeannette Glass Company produced Holiday and found that it was one of its most popular pink Depression Glass like patterns. It is listed in many Depression Glass books, but was not introduced until 1947. This lovely pattern is moderately priced. Dinners, cups and saucers, serving pieces, pitchers and flat tumblers are easy to find. Harder to find items include the cake plate, footed tumblers, and large fruit or console bowl.

Homespun - (Pink, Crystal, and some fired on colors) (1939-1949) -This lovely pattern of vertical lines with tiny vertical ribs is a creation of the Jeannette Glass Company . Most pieces of Homespun have a waffle pattern in the bottom. Contrary to what was first believed, all pieces in this pattern do not have the waffle pattern present. Production of Homespun began in 1939. Jeannette is one of the few companies that produced children's dishes (just like mothers) to go along with their Depression Glass Sets. Homespun has a matching child's set. A pitcher was made to go with the Homespun set. It looks identical to Hazel Atlas's Fine Rib patterned pitcher. An original catalog reprint confirms that Jeannette did indeed make this pitcher and sold it with the Homespun pattern.

, Iris - (Crystal-1928-1932, Iridescent-1950s, Multicolored-1970s) - Jeannette started production of Iris in crystal during the Depression years. Later, in the 1950s, iridescent Iris was made. In the 1970's, flashed colors were produced. The iridescent candy bottom was also made during this time period. Quite a few pieces of crystal Iris have been reproduced by A & A Imports. Crystal dinner plates, flat tumblers, footed ice teas, and coasters have been made. At this time other items have not been remade. Although these items can be told from the originals, it is difficult. The detail in the glass and the clarity of the glass helps to identify the old from the new.

National Gift Ware - (Late 1930s -1950s) (Crystal) -

National Gift Ware is a pattern that was introduced in the late 1930's. We have an original glass ad from a Jeannette catalog from this time period. National Gift Ware was a heavy vertical ribbed pattern. Many, but not all of the pieces had tiny ringed circles in the bottom. Because of the heavy nature of the glass, this pattern was durable and not easily damaged. Pieces included a relish, a covered candy, a sugar and creamer, bowls of various sizes, pitchers, salt and pepper shakers, trays, a cigarette set, and vases. This glassware was popular in both homes and eating establishments and remained in the Jeannette line for a good many years.

Pilgrim (Thumbprint) - (Late 1930s -1950s) (Ice Blue) (Crystal) (Crystal with Gold Decoration - Jeannette designed and produced pieces in the Pilgrim pattern in the late 1930s. Bowls, pitcher and tumbler sets, stemware, and trays, were offered for sale in this interesting pattern of vertical spaced ovals. The name "Thumbprint" immediately comes to mind. Almost every large glass company from this time period had their version of a Thumbprint pattern. In the 1950s Jeannette used the Pilgrim molds in their Shell Pink Milk Glass line. They renamed the pattern Thumbprint. A small pitcher and tumbler set, goblets, and sherbets were offered for sale in this pretty color.

Shell Pink Milk Glass - (1958 - 1959) -In the late 1950s, pink milk glass became popular. Fostoria, Fenton, and Cambridge all had their versions of this color. The Jeannette Glass Company introduced Shell Pink in 1958 and discontinued this pretty color in 1959. Shell Pink Milk Glass was made in a variety of pieces which included a punch set, pitcher, tumbler, goblet, cookie jar, candlesticks, bowls, compotes, vases, a puff box, cigarette box, relish, snack set, honey jar, cake stand, lazy susan, creamer, sugar and lid, and a footed nut dish. Experimental items have been found which include an ashtray, the deer powder jar, and a large covered duck jar. Most of the pieces were made as accessory items to use alone or together. Jeannette used many different molds and patterns to put together this interesting assortment.

Sierra (Pinwheel) - (1931 - 1933) (Green, Pink, Ultramarine) - Sierra is a stylized pattern with sharp edges and vertical lines. The pinwheel scheme is embossed, which creates sharp edges on the surface of the glass. The effect is beautiful, but due to the numerous uneven edges, finding pieces of Sierra in undamaged condition is a challenge. The Pink ad Green colors are both popular, although finding green Sierra is a bit more taxing. The only piece of Sierra to have been found in Ultramarine is a cup, so if you are wanting to collect Jeannette's signature color, this pattern would not be for you. If you are looking for a Deco Depression Era pattern in Pink or Green you will love this one.

S unburst - (Late 1930s -1940s ) (Crystal) - Sunburst was made by the Jeannette Glass Company in the late 1930's and 1940's. Most of the pieces have the same mold shape as the Iris and Herringbone pattern listed above. Because of the similarity in shape, some Iris collectors buy pieces of the Sunburst design to use with their pattern. The pattern gets its name from the starburst or sunray design that graces each piece. Sunburst was available as a full service dinnerware set. It could be purchased as a 34 or 44 piece dinner set, or in a smaller luncheon set size. Accessory pieces such as tumblers, and the bowl and candlesticks were offered for sale individually or in the larger sets.

Sunflower - (1930s) - (Pink, Green, Delphite, Ultramarine, Experimental Colors) - Sunflower is a fairly large Depression Glass set that was made in the 1930's. The shapes are very similar to Floral Poinsettia. The only drawback to collecting this pretty pattern is the lack of serving pieces available. There is no butter dish, platter, candy, or pitcher. Most people or not aware of the fact that Jeannette's 2 cup measuring cup often came with the Sunflower Motif in the bottom and that it was made to go with the set .

Swirl - (1937- 1938) (Ultramarine, Pink, Delphite) - Swirl or spiral patterns were popular during the Depression years and most major companies had their own version of a spiral pattern. The Jeannette Glass Company produced a complete line of dinnerware with the swirl effect and named it aptly, Swirl. There are quite a few pink collectors, but Swirl was most popular in the Ultramarine color. Ultramarine was a deep turquoise blue color that Jeannette was famous for. The Ultramarine color had a tendency to vary in production. Some pieces are almost a flat deep green color. There are collectors for the deep rich Ultramarine color, and the more subdued "green." When you are ordering from the internet you need to be sure that you know what color variation you are receiving. Most dealers refer to the flat ultramarine color as green. There are several experimental pieces that have been found in amber and ice blue. This setting includes many serving pieces as well as a full size dinner plate. Some hard to find pieces are the candy dish, butter dish, and flat ice tea tumbler.

Windsor (1936-1946) - (Amberina, Crystal, Delphite, Green, Ice blue, Ruby) -Windsor was made by the Jeannette Glass Company. We have listed quite a few colors, but Windsor is commonly found in Crystal, Pink, and Green. You rarely find pieces of the other colors, and finding a complete set of any of them would be virtually impossible. Pink and Green seem to be the most collectible colors, however quite a few collectors look for crystal. Some hard to find items include cream soups, ice tea tumblers, and candlesticks.

Jeannette Glass Kitchenware Patterns and Colors

Delphite Jeannette (1930s - 40s) -Jeannette made one of the largest lines of Delphite kitchenware during the depression years. The opaque blue color is stunning and captures the interest of people today as much as it did when it was made. Several different syle canisters were made. A complete line of useful kitchen items such as reamers, leftover jars, and shakers were made to go with both canister styles. Cherry Blossom and Swirl, two of Jeannette's full service dinnerware sets were available in delphite. Your entire kitchen area could be decorated in the Jeannette's beautiful Delphite color. The McKee Glass company also had a large line of Delphite kitchenware. Today collectors mix McKee and Jeannette together to create a truly awesome collection. Jeannette Delphite Kitchen Items

Green Transparent (Jeannette ) ( 1930s) - The Jeannette Glass Company , made a large line of kitchenware in a pretty transparent green to match their Depression Glass dinnerware sets. Hex Optic which is a Jeannette luncheon set had an accompanying grouping of kitchen items to match in both green and pink. Jeannette made kitchen ware pitchers, measuring cups, leftovers, covered salt and butter boxes, mugs, reamers, sugar shakers, ice buckets, and mixing bowls. They even made a leftover set with their famous Floral Poinsettia pattern embossed on the inside of the lid. Jeannette's green kitchenware was made to be used not only with Jeannette's Depression Glass sets, but also with any of their major competition's sets as well. The stylish designs insured that their products would be popular and appeal to many home shoppers. As a result, today it is still possible to add this pretty kitchenware to your kitchen decor.

Jadite Jeannette - (1930s) -Jeannette's Jadite, (sometimes spelled Jade-ite by other companies) came in two shades. A dark jadite and a lighter one. Jeannette's jadite colors were among the prettiest Jadite produced during the 1930's. Jeannette's Jadite Kitchenware line was one of the largest lines of jadite produced. There were more pieces made in Jeannette's Jadite line than there were in their Delphite line. The Jadite kitchenware had three different styles of canisters. Many accompanying pieces were made to go with these canisters. A complete list of the pieces can be found on our other Jadite pages. Many collectors of Jeannette's Jadite combine it with McKee's jadite kitchen items.

Light Jade/Yellow (Jeannette) - (1930s)Most of the major Depression Era Companies had their version of yellow milk glass. The Jeannette Glass Company may have attempted to produce this color with their light jade (nearly yellow) paneled sugar shaker. Since this is the only light yellow piece that Jeannette made, it just may have been an occasional fluke in the composition of the glass used that day. However, other jade items are not found in this color which leads one to believe that the light yellowish color was intentional. If so, it must not have created much interest among customers and Jeannette decided not to make other items in this color.

Jenny Ware (Jeannette) - (1930s) (Crystal, Pink, Ultramarine ) - Jeannette produced a very large line of kitchenware in a attractive patten called Jenny Ware. This pretty ribbed pattern was made in crystal, pink, and ultramarine in the 1930s. The ultramarine color was designed to go with Jeannette's Ultramarine Depression Glass patterns. Pieces in this kitchenware pattern include a pitcher, tumblers, mixing bowls, round and rectangular leftovers, a butter, a reamer, and a four piece tab-handled measuring cup set. This is one of the nicest collections of transparent patterned kitchenware ever made. Jeannette was the only company to make an Ultramarine colored collection of kitchenware.

Pink Kitchen Glassware - ( 1930s) - Jeannette made many Pink Depression Era kitchen items. They were an innovative company and added patterns to many of their kitchenware shapes. Most pink kitchenware will be found with a pattern. Jenny Ware and Hex Optic patterns were very popular and sold well in the pink color. Plain (non-patterned) kitchenware was made to use with the patterned kitchenware or with any Depression Era pattern.


The History of Window Glass

Technically speaking, the Romans made window glass panes from “flat glass” as early as the first century. The panes were small, not transparent, and have since been discovered at sites in Rome, Britain, and Pompeii.

The First Window Glass

Early in the 17th century, the first window glass was manufactured in Britain. It was broadsheet glass, a lengthy balloon of glass that was blown, and then both ends of the glass were removed, leaving a cylinder to be split and flattened.

Glass-Making Arrives in the Colonies

It also was in the early 17th century that English settlers brought glass-making to America, where the first glass factory was opened in Jamestown, Virginia. The manufacturing process consisted of a bubble of glass that was flattened and reheated before being cut into shapes—a cheap and efficient way to make window glass.

The Crown Glass Process

Next came the crown glass process, in which a sphere of molten glass was blown, opened at the end of the blowpipe, then spun into a circular sheet. Despite imperfections that included ripples and circles, crown glass was still better than the broadsheet. In 1834, the Germans introduced a cylinder method of manufacturing in which technological advances produced even larger sheets of quality glass.

Accidental Discovery of Laminated Glass

In 1903, laminated glass was invented quite accidentally by Edouard Benedictus, a French chemist whose glass flask dropped to the floor and shattered but did not break. Since then, inserting a thin plastic film between two sheets of glass has made larger windows safer.

20th Century Progress

Late in the 20th Century, in efforts to reduce fuel bills by upgrading the energy efficiency of windows, double-glazing was developed by placing moisture absorbent spacers between two panes of glass to create the insulated airspace. Today, most glazing glass is manufactured by a process in which molten glass is floated on a bed of molten tin as the upper surface is polished with pressurized nitrogen.

"Renewal by Andersen installed my windows, did a terrific job, very professional. Covered all my furniture and carpets. I highly recommend them."


How to Determine Value

Many informative books on Depression glass are older and will not reflect current values. However, these older books can offer a lot of information and can be used to identify your pattern. Some excellent books are no longer in print. The good news is that older books can be found used online.

To find a value for your vintage glassware, shop around. Visit local antique dealers. Often, the demand for a particular pattern varies according to the area in which you live. Dealers can be quite informative especially if the shop is not very busy at the time of your visit.

Check online auction sites. Look at the "sold" price. You may want to disregard the highest asking prices as some sellers overvalue their goods. When browsing online look at sellers who specify the pattern. That means they have some knowledge of their wares.

If you want to sell your glass, do not expect to collect the full retail value of a piece as stated at sites like Kovel&aposs or Replacements. Remember that a dealer must make overhead and profit. Consignment shops also must collect a percentage of the sold price. Some dealers lower the prices on goods that have not sold in a specific time.

A pink Windsor pitcher (like the one shown above) sold for $40 online. I got mine for free! So if I sold it for $40, that would be a significant profit!

If you can&apost remember what you paid for a piece, you&aposre downsizing and just need to get rid of stuff, price your glass a bit lower than everyone else. Someone gets a bargain and you get rid of stuff.

Many collectors of the past bought their dishware at flea markets, rummage sales, thrift stores, and yard sales. In that case, you may still make a tidy profit if you choose to sell today.


Clear Glass Dish from Pompeii - History

The Sommerso technique was originally developed in the 1930's by Antonio Da Ross. Sommerso (Italian for "submerged") is the Murano glassmaking technique of creating two or more layers of contrasting glass without the colours mixing together. It is formed by dipping coloured glass into molten glass of a different colour, before blowing the glass into the required form. The outermist layer is often clear. During the 1950's the Sommerso style became world famous due to the work of Flavio Poli, artistic director of Seguso Vetri d'Arte. There have since been many other factories in the Murano region which have made pieces in this style, and as such it is difficult to be certain of the manufacturer without labels or signatures present. Other well known manufacturers that have produced glassware in the Sommerso style include Mandruzzato, Galliano Ferro, Formia, Oball, Arte Nuova and Luigi Onesto.

A purple and blue Murano glass "Sommerso" bottle vase. Made by Seguso Vetri d'Arte, probably designed by Mario Pinzoni.

A pair of green, amber and clear Murano glass "Sommerso" candlestick holders. Made by Seguso Vetri d'Arte, signed.

A green and blue Murano glass "Sommerso" perfume bottle. Made by Seguso Vetri d'Arte, pattern number 13937/P, labelled.

A purple and pink "Sommerso" Murano glass ashtray bowl. Made by Archimede Seguso, labelled.

A purple, blue and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass stem vase. Made by Galliano Ferro.

A purple, turquoise and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass stem vase. Made by Galliano Ferro.

A green, amber and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass stem vase. Made by Galliano Ferro.

A red, blue and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass stem vase. Made by Galliano Ferro.

A pink, white and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass vase. Made by Oball, labelled.

A pink, white and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass vase. Made by Oball, labelled.

A pink, black and clear Murano "Sommerso" organic glass vase. Made by Oball, labelled.

A green, amber and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass vase with applied clear decoration.

A brown, uranium yellow and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass vase. Made by Arte Nuova, labelled.

A brown, uranium yellow and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass vase. Made by Arte Nuova.

A green, uranium yellow and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass vase. Made by Arte Nuova.

A purple, uranium yellow and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass vase. Made by Arte Nuova.

A pink, blue and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass vase. Made by Arte Nuova.

A brown, amber and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass vase. Made by Arte Nuova.

A brown, amber and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass vase. Made by Arte Nuova.

A brown, amber and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass vase. Made by Arte Nuova.

A purple, blue and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass vase. Made by Arte Nuova.

A green, amber and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass vase. Made by Arte Nuova.

A pink, green, amber and clear Murano "Sommerso" organic glass vase. Possibly by Arte Nuova.

A green, amber, blue and clear Murano "Sommerso" organic glass vase. Possibly by Arte Nuova.

A pink, blue and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass vase. Possibly by Arte Nuova.

An orange, amber and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass vase. Label reads "Genuine Venetian Glass, Made in Murano, Italy".

A turquoise and blue Murano "Sommerso" glass vase.

A turquoise and blue Murano "Sommerso" glass vase.

A green, pink and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass sculptural bowl. Made by Cristallo Venezia CCC. Reference: [click here].

A green, pink and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass sculptural bowl. Made by Cristallo Venezia CCC.

A green, amber and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass sculptural bowl. Made by Cristallo Venezia CCC.

A green, amber and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass sculptural bowl. Probably made by Cristallo Venezia CCC.

A pink, blue and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass sculptural bowl. Probably made by Cristallo Venezia CCC.

A pink and blue Murano "Sommerso" glass sculptural bowl. Probably made by Cristallo Venezia CCC.

A green and amber Murano "Sommerso" glass sculptural bowl. Probably made by Cristallo Venezia CCC.

A purple, blue and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass fish sculpture. Made by Artistica Murano CCC. Reference: [click here].

A purple, blue and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass vase.

A purple, blue and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass vase.

A purple, blue and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass vase.

A purple, blue and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass vase.

A red, green and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass vase.

A red, green and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass vase.

A red, green and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass vase.

A red, green and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass vase.

A blue, uranium yellow and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass vase.

A blue, uranium yellow and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass vase.

A blue, uranium yellow and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass vase.

A blue, green and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass basket shaped vase.

A red, uranium yellow and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass basket shaped vase.

A red, peach and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass vase.

An orange, uranium green and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass vase.

A smokey grey, blue and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass vase.

A green, uranium yellow and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass vase.

A green, amber and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass vase.

An orange, uranium green and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass vase.

A brown, amber and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass vase.

A blue, green and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass vase.

A green, amber and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass vase.

A brown, amber and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass vase.

A red, amber and blue Murano "Sommerso" glass vase.

A green, amber and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass vase.

A red, amber and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass vase.

A green, amber and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass vase.

A purple, uranium yellow and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass vase.

A purple and green Murano "Sommerso" glass stem vase.

A red, amber and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass stem vase, with generic Murano glass label.

A pink, blue and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass stem vase.

A brown, amber and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass stem vase.

A red, blue and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass jug.

A green, amber and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass jug, with Hans Geismar import label.

A purple, green and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass jug.

A pink, amber and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass jug.

A red and uranium green Murano "Sommerso" glass jug, with Hans Geismar import label.

A red and uranium yellow Murano "Sommerso" glass jug.

A blue and uranium green Murano "Sommerso" glass jug.

A red and blue Murano "Sommerso" glass jug.

A green, uranium yellow and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass bowl.

A pink, uranium yellow and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass ashtray bowl.

A green, amber and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass ashtray bowl.

A blue, amber and clear Murano "Sommerso" glass ashtray bowl.

A red and amber Murano sommerso glass sculpture bowl. Bears a red foil Hans Geismar "HG Venetian Art Glass" import label.

A red and amber Murano sommerso glass sculpture bowl. Bears a red foil Hans Geismar "HG Venetian Art Glass" import label.

A blue and amber Murano sommerso glass sculpture bowl. Bears a red foil Hans Geismar "HG Venetian Art Glass" import label.

A green and amber Murano sommerso glass sculpture bowl.

A green and amber Murano sommerso glass sculpture bowl.

A blue and amber Murano sommerso glass sculpture bowl.

A blue and uranium yellow Murano "Sommerso" glass bowl.

A red and amber Murano "Sommerso" glass bowl.

A turquoise and uranium yellow Murano sommerso glass decorative bottle.

A blue Murano sommerso glass decorative bottle.

A green, yellow and clear Murano sommerso glass decorative bottle.

A red and amber Murano sommerso glass decorative bottle.

A turquoise blue and uranium green Murano sommerso glass cockerel figurine. Bears a foil Hans Geismar "HG Venetian Art Glass" import label.

A red and lilac / blue Murano sommerso neodymium glass swan with "Bullicante" controlled bubble effect.

A green, amber and clear Murano sommerso glass swan with "Bullicante" controlled bubble effect.

A red, amber and clear Murano sommerso glass swan with "Bullicante" controlled bubble effect.

A purple and uranium yellow Murano sommerso glass swan figurine.

An amber and uranium yellow Murano sommerso glass swan figurine.

A pink and uranium yellow Murano sommerso glass swan figurine.

A purple, blue and clear Murano sommerso glass swan figurine.

A blue and uranium yellow Murano sommerso glass swan figurine.

A brown and amber Murano sommerso glass swan figurine.

A red, amber and uranium green Murano sommerso glass swan figurine with generic Murano glass label.


Crafting American Brilliant Cut Glass

The process of making this favored glass was time-consuming and expensive. Facets were cut into finished glass pieces by pressing them against a large rotating iron or stone wheel, according to The Glass Encyclopedia website. The nicest pieces of cut glass have a high lead oxide content giving them extra sparkle showing off the exceptional shine of the cutting in this clear glass.

Through the American Brilliant Period, crafters moved away from hand blowing blanks to blown glass made with molds, and eventually incorporated design elements in the blown mold as well. The craftsmanship diminished somewhat as manufacturing processes evolved in this way.

The way the items were polished also changed over time, going from hand finishing to a strong acid bath to eliminate sharp edges. This method worked but lacked the same high-quality finish when compared to the earlier handcrafted glass.

The patterns changed, too, as corners were cut to save money and increase profits. In general, the decorations were less elaborate as time passed with less swirled cuts and precise points cut into the glass. Artistry was less important at this time as the focus shifted to the bottom line.


Technically speaking "flat glass" was introduced by the Romans as glass for construction of window panes. These were produced as early as the first century CE, and is commonly found in Roman sites in Britain as well. Pieces as large as 30 by 40 inches have also been uncovered at Pompeii.

Such early windows were usually quite small, of irregular thickness, and not clear or transparent. These flat panes may have been produced using one of several different processes.

One suggested method is "cast glass". This produced glass of uneven thickness, with one side having a polished or "glossy" surface and the other side a matt finish. Although the exact technique is lost, it is suggested that they were produced by pouring molten glass into a mold.

Another method suggested is casting of soft, hot glass on a flat surface and then pressing it into flatness with a moist, wooden mallet. Contemporary glassmakers have been able to re-produce glass panes in this method, and the results closely match the original Roman panes.

Another method used by the Romans for the production of window glass was called the "crown method". First a hollow sphere was blown at the end of a blowpipe. Then the end opposite the blowpipe was opened. The opened, soft sphere was then vigorously rotated. The centrifugal force would flatten out the glass into a disk. The disc was then cooled and cut into small sheets. Every disk had a lump of glass at the center, known as the "bull’s eye" or "crown".

Although another source clearly mentions that crown glass method was invented in the eighth century in Syria:

The method of spinning window crowns was probably first discovered in Syria in the eighth century. The glass workers blowpipe, used for this process, was invented at the beginning of the Christian era. - source: Flat Glass Technology.

The well-known Venetian glass industry dates back to the tenth century. Venetian glass makers did not specialize in flat glass products but a certain amount of window glass was manufactured and part of it was exported. In the fourteenth century mirrors were made by coating plates of glass with an amalgam of tin and mercury.

English settlers introduced glass making into America. The first manufacturing establishment in America was a glass factory. This was erected at the beginning of the seventeenth century at James Towne, Virginia. The crown method of manufacturing flat glass was replaced by the cylinder process.

Larger sheets of glass could be made in this way and it was the dominating method of making flat glass in the nineteenth century. At the beginning of the twentieth century the machine-cylinder method was introduced. A circular metal bait about 25 cm (10 in) in diameter situated at the end of a blow-pipe, was lowered to the surface of the molten glass. Using compressed air for blowing, it was possible to draw a cylinder of glass, approximately 1500 cm (50 ft) high. This cylinder was subsequently split, flattened and annealed.

At the end of the nineteenth century attempts were on to draw a flat sheet of glass directly, to avoid the second step of flattening the cylinder. The first successful method was invented by Emile Fourcault in Belgium, who took a patent in 1904. Around the same time, two methods for sheet glass drawing were developed in America. These were the Colburn, or Libbey-Owens, process and the Pittsburgh process. These processes are still in use, the most successful being the Pittsburgh process.

Several refinements and processes have been made since the seventeenth century in France, Germany, and the United States.


Windsor Pink Pitcher

The Windsor pattern has a nice geometrical texture and this pink glass pitcher is rather common. Made by Jeannette Glass Company from 1936 through 1946, it was valued between $25 and $35 in 2008. You may still find pieces at that price, but it has more often dropped to $15 to $25.


Watch the video: Μία μέρα στην Πομπηία A Day in Pompeii Full length animation (July 2022).


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