History Podcasts

December 16, 2014 Day 330 of the Sixth Year - History

December 16, 2014 Day 330 of the Sixth Year - History

President Barack Obama and Vice President Joe Biden meet with Archbishop Joseph Kurtz of Louisville, President of the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops, in the Oval Office, Dec. 16, 2014.


ISO week date

The ISO week date system is effectively a leap week calendar system that is part of the ISO 8601 date and time standard issued by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) since 1988 (last revised in 2019) and, before that, it was defined in ISO (R) 2015 since 1971. It is used (mainly) in government and business for fiscal years, as well as in timekeeping. This was previously known as "Industrial date coding". The system specifies a week year atop the Gregorian calendar by defining a notation for ordinal weeks of the year.

The Gregorian leap cycle, which has 97 leap days spread across 400 years, contains a whole number of weeks ( 20 871 ). In every cycle there are 71 years with an additional 53rd week (corresponding to the Gregorian years that contain 53 Thursdays). An average year is exactly 52.1775 weeks long months ( 1 ⁄ 12 year) average at exactly 4.348 125 weeks.

An ISO week-numbering year (also called ISO year informally) has 52 or 53 full weeks. That is 364 or 371 days instead of the usual 365 or 366 days. The extra week is sometimes referred to as a leap week, although ISO 8601 does not use this term.

Weeks start with Monday and end on Sunday. Each week's year is the Gregorian year in which the Thursday falls. The first week of the year, hence, always contains 4 January. ISO week year numbering therefore usually deviates by 1 from the Gregorian for some days close to 1 January.

A precise date is specified by the ISO week-numbering year in the format YYYY , a week number in the format ww prefixed by the letter 'W', and the weekday number, a digit d from 1 through 7, beginning with Monday and ending with Sunday. For example, the Gregorian date Monday 23 December 2019 corresponds to Monday in the 52nd week of 2019, and is written 2019-W52-1 (in extended form) or 2019W521 (in compact form). The ISO year is slightly offset to the Gregorian year for example, Monday 30 December 2019 in the Gregorian calendar is the first day of week 1 of 2020 in the ISO calendar, and is written as 2020-W01-1 or 2020W011.

June 2021
Week Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun
W22 31 01 02 03 04 05 06
W23 07 08 09 10 11 12 13
W24 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
W25 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
W26 28 29 30 01 02 03 04


›› What if you only counted weekdays?

In some cases, you might want to skip weekends and count only the weekdays. This could be useful if you know you have a deadline based on a certain number of business days. If you are trying to see what day falls on the exact date difference of 330 weekdays from today, you can count up each day skipping Saturdays and Sundays.

Start your calculation with today, which falls on a Wednesday. Counting forward, the next day would be a Thursday.

To get exactly three hundred and thirty weekdays from now, you actually need to count 462 total days (including weekend days). That means that 330 weekdays from today would be September 28, 2022.

If you're counting business days, don't forget to adjust this date for any holidays.


Avocatul Florin Ciutacu: „Unii avocati pun deasupra oricarui principiu moral, iar uneori incalcand chiar si reguli de drept, atragerea de clientela” Membru al mai multor organizatii nationale si internationale cu caracter academic, avocatul Florin Ciutacu, din cadrul Baroului Bucuresti, opineaza ca secretul profesional si reputatia unui avocat sunt interdependente. Cat priveste controlul asupra pastrarii confidentialitatii de catre colaboratori, avocatul Ciutacu spune ca un rol important in acest demers il au actiunile preventive sub aspectul managementului de caz aplicat.

Avocatul Florin Ciutacu este cadru didactic universitar de Drept civil si are calitatea de arbitru la Curtea de Arbitraj International de la Viena. In viziunea sa, confidentialitatea avocat-client in sistemul juridic romanesc prezinta conotatii specifice atunci cand acest principiu se aplica, venind, uneori, in (aparente sau reale) contradictii cu alte principii, unele dintre acestea guvernand, si ele, relatia dintre avocat si clientul sau. Dupa cum sustine avocatul Florin Ciutacu, de multe ori, in practica, mai ales in ultimii ani, avocatii romani au probleme in ceea ce priveste executarea obligatiilor de catre clientii lor in ceea ce priveste plata onorariilor, cu toate ca avocatii, in regula generala, atunci cand fixeaza onorariile, respecta un alt principiu – cel al scrupulozitatii in stabilirea onorariilor.

„Se ajunge la situatia in care, fara a-si executa obligatiile care le revin, clientii pretind ca avocatul sa isi execute obligatiile sale, invocand de multe ori cauze exterioare vointei sale ori argumente de ordin subiectiv (unele cu o inalta – reala sau aparenta – incarcatura emotionala). In asemenea situatii, stiut fiind ca avocatul nu poate exercita un drept de retentie (asupra documentelor clientului sau) pentru a-l constrange in acest fel la plata onorariului la care s-a obligat, iar opunerea exceptiei de neexecutare a contractului (refuzand, de pilda, sa pledeze la termenul fixat de instanta) este greu de realizat in practica, avocatul are tendinta de a incalca principiul confidentialitatii, in diverse modalitati. Ca, fiindu-ti incalcate drepturile, incalci principiul confidentialitatii este o chestiune care finalmente rezida din felul in care intelegi, ca avocat, sa te supui mai degraba principiilor decat unor situatii, sa le zicem, conjuncturale.”, opineaza avocatul Florin Ciutacu.

Cand actiunile tale sunt guvernate doar de dorinta de a castiga bani, morala, regulile de drept chiar, cad din pacate in planul doi. Existand riscul asumat (uneori nici macar) ca principiul confidentialitatii, unul incarcat de conotatii morale, sa nu mai aiba relevanta.
(Avocatul Florin Ciutacu, Baroul Bucuresti)

Intrebat daca s-a aflat vreodata in situatia de a incalca principiul confidentialitatii pe care-l impune statutul de avocat, avocatul Ciutacu a tinut sa sublinieze faptul ca „granita intre confidentialitate si secretele continute de faptele / actele comise de catre clienti, unele care se afla la limita ilicitului, este uneori fragila”. Acesta este si motivul pentru care Florin Ciutacu spune ca este bine ca avocatul sa dedice timp suficient si sa depuna toate diligentele pentru a afla adevarul cu privire la informatiile furnizate de client. In acelasi timp, avocatul Florin Ciutacu declara ca este comun faptul ca, uneori, clientii au tendinta de a ascunde unele elemente care pot deveni esentiale pentru o eficienta aparare a drepturilor subiective si a intereselor sale de catre avocat. „Fata cu acest aspect, nu cred ca un avocat cu experienta nu a trecut prin astfel de situatii. In asa fel incat, daca a observat ca clientul sau incearca sa directioneze activitatea avocatului, in asa fel incat insusi avocatul sa devina uneori parte la anumite acte sau fapte aflate la granita intre licit si ilicit sau care chiar intra in sfera ilicitului, este bine ca acesta sa faca in asa fel incat, chiar cu riscul incalcarii principiului confidentailitatii, sa nu actioneze in sensul pe are clientul sau incerca sa conduca speta. Personal, am avut prilejul sa observ atfel de situatii, alegatiunea, recomandata, fiind aceea de a nu proceda la reprezentarea sau asistarea unor astfel de clienti”, precizeaza avocatul Florin Ciutacu.

„Principiul confidentialitatii este incarcat de conotatii morale”

In ceea ce priveste existenta – in cariera sa – a vreunui proces de constiinta, generat de respectarea regulii confidentialitatii ca avocat, Florin Ciutacu il citeaza pe un avocat francez care spunea ca „Nu am intrat niciodata intr-un dosar in care as fi dat alta solutie in calitate de judecator”. Florin Ciutacu crede ca acel avocat exprima o dorinta si nu o realitate. Dupa avocatul bucurestean, constiinta, adica aspectul moral, raportul cu sine (cu luarea in considerare a regulilor de drept) in aceasta profesie este configurata nu numai conform educatiei juridice pe care o are avocatul, ci si educatiei lui ca om. „Constatam, din pacate, cum unii avocati, nu dau nume, pun deasupra oricarui principiu moral, iar uneori incalcand chiar si reguli de drept, atragerea de clientela. Evident ca in asemenea situatii, cand actiunile tale sunt guvernate doar de dorinta de a castiga bani, morala, regulile de drept chiar, cad din pacate in planul doi. Existand riscul asumat (uneori nici macar), ca principiul confidentialitatii, unul incarcat de conotatii morale, sa nu mai aiba relevanta. Nu cred ca ai putea ca avocat sa crezi ca, respectand principiul confidentialitatii si apreciindu-l corect, chiar daca ai produs oarecari suferinte (morale sau / si juridice), ar trebui sa ai procese de constiinta. Aceasta deoarece, consider eu, continutul sau, anume al acestui principiu, observandu-l si aplicandu-l in mod corelat cu celalalte principii ce ne guverneaza profesia, apare ca fiind producator doar de efecte benefice, pentru constiinta ta, ca avocat.”, este de parere Florin Ciutacu.

Cand vine vorba despre controlul asupra pastrarii confidentialitatii de catre colaboratori, acolo unde este cazul, avocatul Florin Ciutacu vorbeste despre masura juridica in primul rand, cu ale sale mijloace specifice. Concret, avocatul Ciutacu spune ca, in ipoteza in care constata ca se incalca acest principiu, cu intentie ori din culpa, acelui colaborator i se aplica sanctiunea specifica. Tocmai de aceea, adauga avocatul Florin Ciutacu, preventia are un rol important. „Actiunile preventive ocupa un rol foarte important in ceea ce priveste managementul pe care il aplic. Sunt si profesor de drept, in asa fel incat convingerea mea intima este ca daca esti atent la causa remota a colaboratorului, adica motivul ce il determina practicarea acestei nobile profesii, poti avea si capacitatea de a preveni astfel de fapte din partea colaboratorilor ori a partenerilor pe care ii alegi. Nu pot spune ci intodeauna a functionat preventia, in asa fel incat, observand tendinta de a incalca principiul confidentailitatii, a trebuit sa procedez la incetarea raportului de colaborare, cu toate ca persoana respectiva avea o multime de calitati profesionale.”, subliniaza avocatul. Dupa el, motivele incalcarii de catre colaboratori a acestui principiu tin de natura financiara si/sau intentia de a-si crea o retea proprie de clientela. Dar, puncteaza Florin Ciutacu, „oricum ar fi, daca fapta a fost comisa, este bine ca nici clientii si nici avocatul sa nu cunoasca prejudiciile consecutive unor astfel de fapte din partea colaboratorilor”.

Avocatul are tendinta de a incalca principiul confidentialitatii, in diverse modalitati. Ca, fiindu-ti incalcate drepturile, incalci principiul confidentialitatii este o chestiune care finalmente rezida din felul in care intelegi, ca avocat, sa te supui mai degraba principiilor decat unor situatii. (Avocatul Florin Ciutacu, Baroul Bucuresti)

Chestionat asupra confruntarii cu situatii in care avocatii au dezvaluit secrete profesionale, avocatul Florin Ciutacu a declarat pentru Avocatura.com ca, personal, procedeaza in asa fel incat sa nu provoace confratilor astfel de dezvaluiri. El considera ca eficienta muncii sale depinde de cunoasterea foarte buna a dosarului, cu informatiile oferite de catre client si, de asemenea, principiile si normele de drept aplicabile in speta. Pentru Florin Ciutacu este suficient acest lucru pentru a putea sa isi exercite obligatiile luate fata de clientul sau.

„In etapa de gentlemen`s agreement se pot aduce prejudicii importante clientului, prin incalcarea principiului confidentialitatii”

Un ultim aspect dezbatut cu avocatul Florin Ciutacu pe aceasta tema se refera la interdependenta intre pastrarea secretului profesional si reputatia unui avocat. Dupa avocatul bucurestean, cele doua chestiuni in discutie se afla intr-o legatura si conditionare reciproca, regula fiind aplicabila nu numai pentru avocatii pledanti, dar si, poate mai evident, pentru avocatii specializati in consultanta in afaceri. „Imaginati – va ca, in etapa precontractuala, cand reprezinti / asisti un comerciant, dezvalui celeilalte parti anumite secrete. Angajarea raspunderii avocatului apare, in acest caz, ca fiind evidenta. Caci, in aceasta etapa, a celei de gentlemen`s agreement-uri (neproducatoare de efecte juriice pentru parti), nu mai vorbesc de etapa in care se poate angaja raspunderea precontractuala (in civil, una delictuala), se pot aduce prejudicii importante clientului prin incalcarea principiului confidentialitatii de catre avocat. In acest caz, chiar daca se mediaza conflictul dintre avocat si client, cu atat mai mult daca se ajunge la un proces, reputatia avocatului poate fi, in sistemul dat, chiar iremediabil pierduta. Tot astfel, in materie de litigii, mai cu seama cand in speta sunt interese de natura comerciala importante (cum ar fi de, pilda in litigiile solutionate de curtile de arbitraj), daca se incalca principiul conidentialitatii de catre avocat, reputatia acestuia, nu numai intre confrati dar, mai cu seama in cercul de comercianti, poate sa fie grav stirbita.”, conchide avocatul Florin Ciutacu.


16 Days of Activism against Gender-Based Violence

The UN System&rsquos 16 Days of Activism against Gender-Based Violence activities, from 25 November to 10 December, will take place under our 2020 global theme: "Orange the World: Fund, Respond, Prevent, Collect!"

As the world retreated inside homes due to the lockdown measures introduced to curb the COVID-19 pandemic, reports showed an alarming increase in the already existing pandemic of violence against women.

&ldquoAccompanying the crisis has been a spike in domestic violence reporting, at exactly the time that services, including rule of law, health and shelters, are being diverted to address the pandemic,&rdquo stated the UN Secretary-General's report, &ldquoShared Responsibility, Global Solidarity: Responding to the socio-economic impacts of COVID-19".

You can make a difference during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and protracted state of crisis it has generated across the world. You can support women and girl survivors of violence to stay safe and free of violence. Take action during this year&rsquos 16 Days of Activism to End Gender-Based Violence. For more information about &ldquoOrange the World: Fund, Respond, Prevent, Collect!&rdquo and action ideas, see this year&rsquos concept note.

The 16 Days of Activism against Gender-Based Violence is an annual international campaign that kicks off on 25 November, the International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women, and runs until 10 December, Human Rights Day. It was started by activists at the inaugural Women&rsquos Global Leadership Institute in 1991 and continues to be coordinated each year by the Center for Women&rsquos Global Leadership. It is used as an organizing strategy by individuals and organizations around the world to call for the prevention and elimination of violence against women and girls.

In support of this civil society initiative, under the leadership of the UN Secretary-General, António Guterres, the United Nations Secretary-General&rsquos UNiTE by 2030 to End Violence against Women campaign (UNiTE campaign) calls for global actions to increase awareness, galvanize advocacy efforts, and share knowledge and innovations.

In 2019, the UNiTE campaign will mark the 16 Days of Activism against Gender-Based Violence, from 25 November to 10 December, under the theme, &ldquoOrange the World: Generation Equality Stands against Rape!&rdquo

While the names, times and contexts may differ, women and girls universally experience rape, sexual violence, and abuse, in times of peace or war.

Rape is rooted in a complex set of patriarchal beliefs, power, and control that continue to create a social environment in which sexual violence is pervasive and normalized. Exact numbers of rape and sexual assaults are notoriously difficult to confirm due to frequent latitude and impunity for perpetrators, stigma towards survivors, and their subsequent silence.

In recent years, the voices of survivors and activists, through campaigns such as #MeToo, #TimesUp, #Niunamenos, #NotOneMore, #BalanceTonPorc, and others, have put the spotlight on the issue of sexual violence and have reached a crescendo that cannot be silenced or ignored anymore.

That is why, under the umbrella of UN Women&rsquos Generation Equality campaign that marks the 25th anniversary of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, the UNiTE Campaign is calling on people from all walks of life to learn more and take a stand against the pervasive rape culture that surrounds us.

Join us! Share your photos, messages and videos showing how you are participating in the campaign on Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter using #OrangeTheWorld and #GenerationEquality. You can also join the conversation on social media by sharing our campaign materials that you can download here. For more information about &ldquoOrange the World: Generation Equality Stands against Rape&rdquo and action ideas, see this year&rsquos concept note.

From 25 November, the International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women, to 10 December, Human Rights Day, the 16 Days of Activism against Gender-Based Violence Campaign is a time to galvanize action to end violence against women and girls around the world. The international campaign originated from the first Women's Global Leadership Institute coordinated by the Center for Women's Global Leadership in 1991.

For far too long, impunity, silence and stigma have allowed violence against women to escalate to pandemic proportions&mdashone in three women worldwide experience gender-based violence.

The time for change is here and now.

In recent years, the voices of survivors and activists, through campaigns such as #MeToo, #TimesUp, #Niunamenos, #NotOneMore, #BalanceTonPorc and others, have reached a crescendo that cannot be silenced any more. Advocates understand that while the names and contexts may differ across geographic locations, women and girls everywhere are experiencing extensive abuse and their stories need to be brought to light.

This is why the UNiTE Campaign&rsquos global advocacy theme this year is: Orange the World: #HearMeToo

Under the theme Orange the World: #HearMeToo, the UNiTE partners are encouraged to host events with local, national, regional and global women&rsquos movements, survivor advocates and women human rights defenders and create opportunities for dialogue between activists, policy-makers and the public. As in previous years, the colour orange will be a key theme unifying all activities, with buildings and landmarks lit and decorated in orange to bring global attention to the initiative.

Join us! Share your photos, messages and videos showing how you are participating in the campaign at facebook.com/SayNO.UNiTE and twitter.com/SayNO_UNiTE using #orangetheworld and #HearMeToo. For more information about Orange the World: #HearMeToo, see this year&rsquos Concept Note.

Save the date for the UN official commemoration of the International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women.

From 25 November, the International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women, to 10 December, Human Rights Day, the 16 Days of Activism against Gender-Based Violence Campaign is a time to galvanize action to end violence against women and girls around the world. The international campaign originated from the first Women's Global Leadership Institute coordinated by the Center for Women's Global Leadership in 1991.

In 2017, the UNiTE Campaign marked the 16 Days of Activism against Gender-Based Violence under the overarching theme, &ldquoLeave No One Behind: End Violence against Women and Girls&rdquo&mdash reflecting the core principle of the transformative 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

&ldquoLeave No One Behind: End Violence against Women and Girls&rdquo reinforces the UNiTE Campaign&rsquos commitment to a world free from violence for all women and girls around the world, while reaching the most underserved and marginalized, including refugees, migrants, minorities, indigenous peoples, and populations affected by conflict and natural disasters, amongst others, first.

As in previous years, the colour orange was a key theme unifying all activities, and buildings and landmarks will be lit and decorated in orange to bring global attention to the issue of violence against women and girls.

In 2016, the UNiTE campaign strongly emphasized the need for sustainable financing for efforts to end violence against women and girls towards the fulfilment of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

One of the major challenges to efforts to prevent and end violence against women and girls worldwide is the substantial funding shortfall. As a result, resources for initiatives to prevent and end violence against women and girls are severely lacking. Frameworks such as the Sustainable Development Goals, which includes a specific target on ending violence against women and girls, offer huge promise, but must be adequately funded in order to bring real and significant changes in the lives of women and girls.

To bring this issue to the fore, the UN Secretary-General&rsquos campaign UNiTE to End Violence against Women&rsquos call for the 16 Days of Activism against Gender-Based Violence in 2016 was &lsquoOrange the World: Raise Money to End Violence against Women and Girls&rsquo. The initiative provided a moment to bring the issue of sustainable financing for initiatives to prevent and end violence against women to global prominence and also presents the opportunity for resource mobilization for the issue.

The year 2015 marked the 20-year anniversary of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, the most progressive road map to gender equality. World leaders met in March at the United Nations 59th Commission on the Status of Women and in September at the 70th General Assembly to take stock of the progress made and commit to take action to close the gaps that are holding women and girls back. This year a new Sustainable Development agenda, which for the first time includes specific targets and indicators on ending violence against women, also replaced the Millennium Development Goals.

In 2015, the United Nations Secretary-General&rsquos Campaign UNiTE to End Violence against Women invited you to &ldquoOrange the world: End violence against women and girls.&rdquo

The 2014 theme was &ldquoOrange YOUR Neighbourhood.&rdquo Participants around the globe took the UNiTE campaign to local streets, shops and businesses, organizing &ldquoOrange Events&rdquo in their own neighbourhoods, reaching out to your neighbours, local stores, food-sellers on the corner of your street, gas stations, local cinemas, barbers, schools, libraries and post offices. Orange lights were projected and orange flags hung on local landmarks and local &lsquoorange marches&rsquo were organized on 25 November to raise awareness about violence against women and discuss solutions that would work for specific communities.

The overall theme for Orange Day in 2013 was &lsquoSafe Spaces for Women and Girls&rsquo, highlighting the recommendations of the agreed conclusions of the 57th session of the UN Commission on the Status of Women (CSW57) which took place in March.

From 25 November, the International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women, to 10 December 2013, Human Rights Day, UNiTE called for a global action to &ldquoOrange Your World in 16 Days.&rdquo

As part of the 16 Days of Activism against Gender Violence, organizations and activists organized local and national 'orange' events. From marches, marathons and panel discussions to radio and television programmes, concerts and film festivals, Orange Your World involved governments, celebrities, media, civil society organizations and the United Nations system on the ground and on social media to raise awareness and public engagement.

Watch this video showcasing actions around the world to Orange the World in 16 Days:

Check out our influencers for #Iwearorangebecause:

Latest news

Orange the World: Generation Equality Stands against Rape

For the 16 Days of Activism against Gender-Based Violence, from 25 November to 10 December, and under the umbrella of the Generation Equality campaign to mark the 25th anniversary of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, UN Secretary-General&rsquos UNiTE by 2030 to End Violence against Women campaign is calling upon people from all walks of life, across generations, to take our boldest stand yet against rape. More

End rape—an intolerable cost to society

In her message for International Day of the Elimination of Violence against Women, UN Women Executive Director Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka says: "If I could have one wish granted, it might well be a total end to rape". More


Federal Rules of Evidence

These are the Federal Rules of Evidence, as amended to December 1, 2020. Click on any rule to read it.

    ARTICLE I. GENERAL PROVISIONS
      . Scope Definitions . Purpose . Rulings on Evidence . Preliminary Questions . Limiting Evidence That Is Not Admissible Against Other Parties or for Other Purposes . Remainder of or Related Writings or Recorded Statements
      . Judicial Notice of Adjudicative Facts
      . Presumptions in Civil Cases Generally . Applying State Law to Presumptions in Civil Cases
      . Test for Relevant Evidence . General Admissibility of Relevant Evidence . Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons . Character Evidence Other Crimes, Wrongs, or Acts . Methods of Proving Character . Habit Routine Practice . Subsequent Remedial Measures . Compromise Offers and Negotiations . Offers to Pay Medical and Similar Expenses . Pleas, Plea Discussions, and Related Statements . Liability Insurance . Sex-Offense Cases: The Victim’s Sexual Behavior or Predisposition . Similar Crimes in Sexual-Assault Cases . Similar Crimes in Child Molestation Cases . Similar Acts in Civil Cases Involving Sexual Assault or Child Molestation
      . Privilege in General . Attorney-Client Privilege and Work Product Limitations on Waiver
      . Competency to Testify in General . Need for Personal Knowledge . Oath or Affirmation to Testify Truthfully . Interpreter . Judge’s Competency as a Witness . Juror’s Competency as a Witness . Who May Impeach a Witness . A Witness’s Character for Truthfulness or Untruthfulness . Impeachment by Evidence of a Criminal Conviction . Religious Beliefs or Opinions . Mode and Order of Examining Witnesses and Presenting Evidence . Writing Used to Refresh a Witness’s Memory . Witness’s Prior Statement . Court’s Calling or Examining a Witness . Excluding Witnesses
      . Opinion Testimony by Lay Witnesses . Testimony by Expert Witnesses . Bases of an Expert’s Opinion Testimony . Opinion on an Ultimate Issue . Disclosing the Facts or Data Underlying an Expert’s Opinion . Court-Appointed Expert Witnesses
      . Definitions That Apply to This Article Exclusions from Hearsay . The Rule Against Hearsay . Exceptions to the Rule Against Hearsay — Regardless of Whether the Declarant Is Available as a Witness . Hearsay Exceptions Declarant Unavailable . Hearsay Within Hearsay . Attacking and Supporting the Declarant’s Credibility . Residual Exception
      . Authenticating or Identifying Evidence . Evidence That Is Self-Authenticating . Subscribing Witness’s Testimony
      . Definitions That Apply to This Article . Requirement of the Original . Admissibility of Duplicates . Admissibility of Other Evidence of Content . Copies of Public Records to Prove Content . Summaries to Prove Content . Testimony or Statement of a Party to Prove Content . Functions of the Court and Jury
      . Applicability of the Rules . Amendments . Title

    Effective Date and Application of Rules

    Pub. L. 93–595, §1, Jan. 2, 1975, 88 Stat. 1926, provided: “That the following rules shall take effect on the one hundred and eightieth day [July 1, 1975] beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 2, 1975]. These rules apply to actions, cases, and proceedings brought after the rules take effect. These rules also apply to further procedure in actions, cases, and proceedings then pending, except to the extent that application of the rules would not be feasible, or would work injustice, in which event former evidentiary principles apply.”

    The Federal Rules of Evidence were adopted by order of the Supreme Court on Nov. 20, 1972, transmitted to Congress by the Chief Justice on Feb. 5, 1973, and to have become effective on July 1, 1973. Pub. L. 93–12, Mar. 30, 1973, 87 Stat. 9, provided that the proposed rules “shall have no force or effect except to the extent, and with such amendments, as they may be expressly approved by Act of Congress”. Pub. L. 93–595, Jan. 2, 1975, 88 Stat. 1926, enacted the Federal Rules of Evidence proposed by the Supreme Court, with amendments made by Congress, to take effect on July 1, 1975.

    The Rules have been amended Oct. 16, 1975, Pub. L. 94–113, §1, 89 Stat. 576, eff. Oct. 31, 1975 Dec. 12, 1975, Pub. L. 94–149, §1, 89 Stat. 805 Oct. 28, 1978, Pub. L. 95–540, §2, 92 Stat. 2046 Nov. 6, 1978, Pub. L. 95–598, title II, §251, 92 Stat. 2673, eff. Oct. 1, 1979 Apr. 30, 1979, eff. Dec. 1, 1980 Apr. 2, 1982, Pub. L. 97–164, title I, §142, title IV, §402, 96 Stat. 45, 57, eff. Oct. 1, 1982 Oct. 12, 1984, Pub. L. 98–473, title IV, §406, 98 Stat. 2067 Mar. 2, 1987, eff. Oct. 1, 1987 Apr. 25, 1988, eff. Nov. 1, 1988 Nov. 18, 1988, Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §§7046, 7075, 102 Stat. 4400, 4405 Jan. 26, 1990, eff. Dec. 1, 1990 Apr. 30, 1991, eff. Dec. 1, 1991 Apr. 22, 1993, eff. Dec. 1, 1993 Apr. 29, 1994, eff. Dec. 1, 1994 Sept. 13, 1994, Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40141, title XXXII, §320935, 108 Stat. 1918, 2135 Apr. 11, 1997, eff. Dec. 1, 1997 Apr. 24, 1998, eff. Dec. 1, 1998 Apr. 17, 2000, eff. Dec. 1, 2000 Mar. 27, 2003, eff. Dec. 1, 2003 Apr. 12, 2006, eff. Dec. 1, 2006 Sept. 19, 2008, Pub. L. 110–322, §1(a), 122 Stat. 3537 Apr. 28, 2010, eff. Dec. 1, 2010 Apr. 26, 2011, eff. Dec. 1, 2011 Apr. 16, 2013, eff. Dec. 1, 2013 Apr. 25, 2014, eff. Dec. 1, 2014 Apr. 25, 2019, eff. Dec. 1, 2019., Dec. 1, 2020


    The Montreal massacre: Canada's feminists remember

    I t was a cold, drizzly day on 6 December 1989 when a young man brandishing a firearm burst into a college classroom at the École Polytechnique in Montreal, Canada. The 60 or so engineering students there had little time to react before the men were ordered from the room and the gunman began shooting the women. Six female students were killed instantly, while three more were left injured.

    The killer, 25-year-old Marc Lépine, was armed with a legally obtained Mini-14 rifle and a hunting knife: he had earlier told a shopkeeper he was going after "small game". Lépine had previously been denied admission to the École Polytechnique and had been upset, it later transpired, about women working in positions traditionally occupied by men. Before he opened fire, Lépine shouted: "You're all a bunch of feminists, and I hate feminists!" One student, Nathalie Provost, protested: "I'm not feminist, I have never fought against men." Lépine shot her anyway.

    The gunman then moved through the college corridors, the cafeteria, and another classroom, specifically targeting women to shoot. By the time Lépine turned the gun on himself, 14 women were dead and another 10 were injured. Four men were hurt unintentionally in the crossfire.

    Francine Pelletier, a feminist activist and newspaper columnist at Montreal's La Presse newspaper, describes feeling "totally floored" on hearing about the massacre, but nothing prepared her for the discovery that she was on a list found by police in the killer's pocket. "Nearly died today," it read. "The lack of time (because I started too late) has allowed these radical feminists to survive."

    Immediately after the shootings, various media commentators and quasi-psychologists proclaimed that Lépine was a madman and that the women just happened to be in the way, as opposed to being specifically targeted. A psychiatrist at the Hôtel-Dieu hospital in Quebec was quoted in La Presse as saying that Lépine was "as innocent as his victims, and himself a victim of an increasingly merciless society". "This was a period of a significant growth in men's rights groups," says Martin Dufresne, founder of Men Against Sexism, a group active at the time of the massacre. "But the public felt too uncomfortable with the political explanation."

    Police refused to go public with the killer's suicide note, arguing at a press conference that it might inspire copycat killings. It was this downplaying of Lépine's true motives that made Pelletier determined to get hold of it. Months later, she was sent a copy in the post, anonymously.

    "Would you note that if I commit suicide today it is not for economic reasons … but for political reasons," it read. "Because I have decided to send the feminists, who have always ruined my life, to their Maker … I have decided to put an end to those viragos."

    Mélissa Blais, a lecturer and doctoral student at the University of Quebec, is the country's leading scholar on the topic of the massacre and its anti-feminist context. She interviewed a number of women for her research who were active feminists in 1989 and found that many felt responsible for what happened at Montreal. "Afterwards, they chose to be silent to avoid further attack.

    "When I became a feminist, around the year 2000, I was puzzled to see that some were still reluctant to talk in political terms about the attack. It seemed as though the most efficient way to dismiss the feminist explanation was to reduce everything to the psychology of a single mad man."

    Pelletier agrees that Lépine's act was highly political and believes he knew exactly what he was doing that day. "I always felt those women died in my name. Some of them probably weren't even feminist," she says, "they just had the nerve to believe they were peers, not subordinates of their male classmates

    The pro-choice movement was galvanising at the time of the massacre. Six months earlier, a Quebec woman, Chantale Daigle, had scored an important victory by overturning an injunction, obtained by her violent ex-partner, at the Canadian supreme court, preventing her from ending a pregnancy. More than 10,000 women demonstrated in Montreal streets in support of Daigle.

    The massacre spurred many campaigns to end male violence and there was much international solidarity. I was part of a group that organised a vigil two days later at Trafalgar Square in London. But, says Pelletier, the effect on the women's movement in Canada was profound.

    "I was one hell of a disillusioned little feminist on 6 December 1989. It had all been too easy," she says. "What we realised after the massacre was that there had been a quiet and growing resentment from many men towards feminists, and for us, a huge price to pay for all that we had achieved."

    I recently spent some time in Montreal and found a vibrant and growing feminist movement, with older women determined to mentor younger generations and encourage a return to the radicalism that was typical of Canadian feminism before 1989, when the feminist movement was characterised by the formation of father's rights organisations and their refusal to accept that men had institutional power and privilege over women.

    In Canada, 6 December is a Day of Remembrance and Action on Violence Against Women and the 23rd anniversary of the atrocity. There will be protests, celebrations and tears as the dead are remembered. As the late feminist writer Andrea Dworkin said: "It is incumbent upon each of us to be the woman that Marc Lépine wanted to kill. We must live with this honour, this courage. We must drive out fear. We must hold on. We must create. We must resist."


    "It's a big thing to take my best friend's record"

    Caroline Seger stands on the verge of history. Over the next week, the Sweden skipper will make her 214th and 215th international appearances, becoming the most-capped player not only in her country, but the entire continent of Europe.

    The record to which she is about to lay claim is currently shared by two of the game’s greats: Birgit Prinz and Therese Sjogran. The latter was a midfield mentor to Seger in her early days with the national team and is now sporting director at her club, FC Rosengard. She also happens to be her best friend.

    But for all the glory - and personal bragging rights - that becoming a European record-breaker will bring, Seger is looking deeper into the horizon. The upcoming Olympics - her fourth - glistens there invitingly, and so too does next year’s UEFA Women’s EURO. Should her form, fitness and motivation levels remain high, we might even see the 36-year-old lead out Sweden in 2023, at what would be her fifth FIFA Women’s World Cup™ and 14th major tournament in yellow and blue.

    There was, therefore, plenty to look forward to as Seger sat down with FIFA.com to discuss setting benchmarks, scoring penalties and smoothing the path for Ferrari-driving youngsters.

    Caroline Seger stands on the verge of history. Over the next week, the Sweden skipper will make her 214th and 215th international appearances, becoming the most-capped player not only in her country, but the entire continent of Europe.

    But for all the glory that becoming a European record-breaker will bring, Seger is looking deeper into the horizon. The upcoming Olympics - her fourth - glistens there invitingly, and so too does next year’s UEFA Women’s EURO. Should her form, fitness and motivation levels remain high, we might even see the 36-year-old lead out Sweden in 2023, at what would be her fifth FIFA Women’s World Cup™ and 14th major tournament in yellow and blue.

    There was, therefore, plenty to look forward to as Seger sat down with FIFA.com to discuss setting benchmarks, scoring penalties and smoothing the path for Ferrari-driving youngsters.

    In all my years with the national team, I don’t ever remember us playing as well as we did at the World Cup in France.


    The Torah says, "Guard the month of the spring, and make [then] the Passover offering."3 Meaning, we need to ensure that Passover is celebrated in the spring.

    In fact, all the biblical festivals — Passover, Shavuot and Sukkot — are dependent on the agricultural seasons. Shavuot is " Chag HaBikurim " (the First Fruits Festival) and Sukkot is " Chag Ha'Asif " (the Harvest Festival). We need to make sure that all the festivals are celebrated in their proper seasons.

    Thus the Jewish lunar calendar must coordinate with the cycle of the sun and the seasons which are determined by the solar orbit. The problem is that a lunar year, twelve lunar months added together, only adds up to about 354.4 days.4 A solar year, at almost 365.25 days,5 is nearly eleven days longer. If no adjustment is made, Passover would occur eleven days earlier each year, eventually drifting into winter, then fall, summer, and then spring again.

    The solution is to periodically insert an extra (thirty-day) month into a year, creating a thirteen-month year. Such a year is called a shanah meuberet ("pregnant year") in Hebrew in English we call it a leap year, and it makes up all the lunar calendar's lost days. It happens about once every three years.

    The month is added to Adar , the last of the twelve months. On leap years we observe two Adars — Adar I and Adar II.

    Thus, the Jewish calendar is both lunar and solar the months are lunar months while the years are solar years. This is in contrast to the Gregorian calendar, in which the year is a solar year and the months are formed by dividing a year into twelve parts, and is also quite different from the pure lunar calendar observed by certain religions, in which each month is determined by the moon and a year is simply twelve lunar months strung together.


    Newsroom

    IRVING, Texas &ndash ExxonMobil today updated preliminary results for the election of directors at its annual meeting of shareholders held on May 26, 2021. Based on estimates by the company&rsquos proxy solicitor, shareholders are expected to elect nine ExxonMobil nominees and three Engine No. 1 nominees.

    Newsroom News • June 2, 2021

    Newsroom News • May 26, 2021

    ExxonMobil earns $2.7 billion in first quarter 2021

    IRVING, Texas &ndash April 30, 2021 &ndash Exxon Mobil Corporation today announced estimated first quarter 2021 earnings of $2.7 billion, or .64 per share assuming dilution, compared with a loss of $610 million in the first quarter of 2020. Results included unfavorable identified items of $31 million, or .01 per share assuming dilution. First quarter capital and exploration expenditures were $3.1 billion, $4 billion lower than the first quarter of 2020.

    Newsroom News • April 30, 2021


    Watch the video: Peshawar Massacre 16 December 2014 (December 2021).