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Severn IV AO-61 - History

Severn IV AO-61 - History

Severn IV

(AO-61: dp. 7,136 (It.); 1. 553'; b. 75'; dr. 32', s. 18 k.
cpl. 298; a. 1 5", 4 3", 8 1.1", 12 20mm.; cl. Ashtabula; T. T3-S2-A1)

The fourth Severn (AO-61) was laid down under Maritime Commission contract (MC hull 727) on 24 November 1943 by the Bethlehem-Sparrows Point Shipyard, Inc., Sparrows Point, Md., launched on 31 May 1944; sponsored by Mrs. Harold B. Hinton; and delivered and commissioned on 19 July 1944, Lt. Comdr. Owen Rees in command.

Following shakedown in Chesapeake Bay, Severn departed the east coast for the Panama Canal and duty as a fresh water carrier in the Pacific. Assigned to ServRon 8, she arrived at Pearl Harbor on 8 September and at Eniwetok on the 22d. There she discharged her cargo into YO's, and, on the 28th, sailed for the Admiralties. At Manus, on 3 October, she commenced watering amphibious craft of the 7th Fleet preparing for the Leyte invasion; and, on the 13th, got under way for Hollandia, whence she sailed for Leyte Gulf on the 18th.

The 23d brought the beginning of the Battle for Leyte Gulf; and, as that day turned into the 24th Severn entered the gulf. After daylight, she moved into San Pedro Bay. An hour later, she underwent her first air attack; and, on the 25th, began discharging fresh water.

Through the daily air attacks of the next few weeks Severn continued to provide 7th Fleet units with water. By November, the attacks were down to two a day and were usually broken up by friendly aircraft. But, on the 24th, an enemy plane penetrated the CAP cover and released a bomb aimed at the water carrier. The bomb missed Severn, but hit PC-1124 then receiving water.

In December, Severn returned to Manus, took on more water, clothing, dry provisions, and lube oil; loaded an LCVP and 2 jeeps at Hollandia, then returned to the Philippines in time to support the landings in Lingayen Gulf. Arriving in that gulf on 13 January 1945, she distributed water and fuel oil through the 26th, then returned to San Pedro Bay. From Leyte, she proceeded back to the Admiralties; and, on 14 February, got under way for the Western Carolines.

During March, Severn filled her cargo tanks with water at Guam and offloaded at Ulithi-into ships staging for the Okinawa campaign. In April, she continued to focus her operations on Ulithi which she left only to rendezvous with 5th Fleet units at sea to return to the Marianas to refill her cargo tanks. In May, with the arrival of Ataban (AW-4) at Ulithi, she commenced roughly triangular operations which took her from the Carolines to the Admiralties to the Marianas and back to the Carolines-taking on potable water at Manus and Guam and discharging it into water carriers and small craft at Saipan and Ulithi.

In August, Severn moved up to Okinawa to discharge water to ships in Buckner Bay and in the Hagushi anchorage. After the end of hostilities, she remained at Okinawa, and-during September, October, and November-she shuttled water from Samar to the Ryukyus. In December, she carried water to distributing ships at Sasebo, Kagoshima, and Wakayama, Japan; and, on the 27th, sailed for the United States.

Severn arrived at San Pedro, Calif., on 10 January 1946. Overhaul followed; and, in May, she sailed for the Marshalls. There, into October, she provided fresh water to units of Joint Task Force 1 during Operation "Crossroads," the atomic test series conducted that summer at Bikini. She then returned to the United States; and, in December, assumed the duties of an oiler and initially transported Navy special fuel and diesel fuel between west coast ports. At mid-month, Severn sailed for Japan where she joined ServRon 3 and commenced shuttling fuel between Japanese and Korean ports. In February 1947, she was transferred to Persian Gulf runs, and, into July, moved fuel from Ras at Tannura to Yokosuka. In July, she returned to the west coast for overhaul; and, in November, resumed runs between Japan and the Persian Gulf. In May 1948, her schedule was altered, and, into September, she carried petroleum products from the Middle East to the east coast of the United States. She then returned to the Pacific; and, but for a run to Europe, she conducted Persian Gulf-Japan runs until ordered back to the United States for inactivation in January 1950.

At the end of that month, she proceeded to the Puget Sound Navy Yard for tank cleaning and voyage repairs, then, in early April, moved south to San Diego to complete inactivation. Despite the outbreak of hostilities in Korea, she was decommissioned as scheduled on 3 July but was soon reactivated again as that conflict drew available shipping into the Pacific and produced unfilled demands in other areas.

Severn was recommissioned on 29 December 1950 and, although assigned to Service Force, Atlantic, was initially employed in transpacific service. By April] 1951, when she transited the Panama Canal to take up duties with the Atlantic Fleet, she had completed two runs to Japan.

Homeported at Newport, Severn operated along the east coast and in the Puerto Rican area into the fall and, in November, was deployed, for the first time to the Mediterranean for duty with the 6th Fleet. In March 1952, she returned to Newport. During the summer, she participated in midshipman cruise "Baker," and, in the fall, after availability and independent ship exercises, resumed participation in scheduled operations in the western Atlantic and Caribbean.

Severn returned to Newport, R.T., from her last Mediterranean deployment on 10 June 1971. She spent the next 18 months engaged in operations and exercises out of Newport. During the first six months of 1973, Severn was at Newport preparing for decommissioning. On 1 July 1973, she was decommissioned and towed to the Inactive Ship Maintenance Facility at Philadelphia, Pa. Exactly one year later, her name was struck from the Navy list, and her hulk was turned over to the Maritime Commission for disposal.

Severn earned two battle stars during World War II.


Severn IV AO-61 - History

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J.T. Thorpe, Inc. History of Asbestos Use

Quick Facts
  • Years in Operation: 1922 – 1991
  • Location: Monterey Park, California
  • Production: Refractory products
  • Asbestos Trust: Yes

J.T. Thorpe, Inc. began operations in 1922 in Los Angeles, California. The company was established by individuals connected to J.T. Thorpe and Son, Inc., another California-based company. However, the two companies operated separately.

J.T. Thorpe, Inc. was a refractory contractor that operated mostly within southern California. Refractories are heat- and pressure-resistant materials used in high-heat machinery, such as furnaces and boilers.

Due to its natural properties, asbestos was a common ingredient in refractory products. Records show the company installed and distributed asbestos refractory materials beginning in the mid-1920s. As a contractor, the company serviced many industries, including power plants and metal forges.

J.T. Thorpe, Inc. moved its operations to Monterey Park, California in 1932. In the late 1930s, the company expanded its services to shipyards. J.T. Thorpe, Inc. installed asbestos-containing refractory products at shipyards and on U.S. Navy ships during World War II.

J.T. Thorpe, Inc. provided refractory services on various ships, including oilers, railcar carriers and containerships. Individuals may have been exposed to asbestos from installation until these materials were removed.

Although JT Thorpe stopped using asbestos materials on ships in the 1980s, some records indicate the company continued to distribute asbestos materials in other industries for several more years.


USS Voyager

Torn from the Collective

Disconnected from the Collective

During the brief war between the Borg and Species 8472 in late 2373, the USS Voyager was caught between the two belligerents. Seeking to protect her crew, and being made aware of the extreme threat to the galaxy posed by Species 8472, Captain Kathryn Janeway forged an alliance with the Borg, offering them the technology behind modified Borg nanoprobes which could be used as biological photon torpedo warheads against their common enemy, in exchange for safe passage through Borg space and non-assimilation. The Collective assigned Seven of Nine to work with Voyager to develop the weapon. When her cube sacrificed itself to save Voyager from an attacking 8472 bio-ship, she and a small number of drones beamed onto Voyager to continue the work. Janeway was severely injured, leaving her first officer, Commander Chakotay, in command. Seven of Nine wanted Voyager to go to another cube, but Chakotay refused. The drones attempted to commandeer Voyager's navigation systems to take it to the nearest cube, but Chakotay decompressed the deck the drones were on, blowing them into space. Seven of Nine, however, managed to remain aboard. Instructed to do so by the Collective, she took Voyager into Species 8472's realm, forcing deployment of the modified nanoprobe torpedoes to protect the ship. A recovered Janeway resumed command and reinstated the alliance. The torpedoes proved effective. Now vulnerable, 8472 retreated. However, the Collective broke the alliance and Seven of Nine attempted to take Voyager to be assimilated. But this was anticipated and a contingency plan was successfully enacted which permanently severed her link to the Collective. Janeway decided to keep Seven of Nine aboard. ( VOY : " Scorpion ", " Scorpion, Part II ")

Seven confronts Janeway about being separated from the Collective

The transition back to Humanity was difficult for Seven of Nine. She appeared to accept her severance from the Collective, but tried to contact it at the first opportunity. She was stopped, however. ( VOY : " The Gift ")

The Doctor, Voyager's holographic chief medical officer, was able to remove most of her implants and restore most of her Human appearance, but her long-term assimilation meant that some parts were vital to her survival and could not be removed. She also refused to be called by her name of Annika Hansen as Seven of Nine was the designation she had always known. But she accepted a shortened version, "Seven" at the suggestion of Captain Janeway. ( VOY : " Day of Honor ")

Shortly after Seven was freed from the collective, Voyager neared a moon in B'omar space, the location of the crashed wreck of the Raven, which had been partially assimilated by the Borg when they caught it. A Borg homing beacon aboard was still active. Seven began experiencing visions of a raven and flashbacks to the time she was assimilated. The beacon reactivated several of Seven's nanoprobes, giving her an irresistible drive to find the source of the beacon. She escaped Voyager in a shuttlecraft and flew to the moon, discovered the ship and recovered the entire memory of her assimilation. ( VOY : " The Raven ")

Scientific accomplishments

Seven of Nine at her station on the bridge

During her first few months on Voyager, Seven attempted to help the engineering crew modify the warp drive to generate transwarp conduits. The efforts failed, and almost cost Voyager its warp core in the process. ( VOY : " Day of Honor ")

Along with Ensign Harry Kim, Seven of Nine designed and constructed the ship's astrometrics lab, which used Borg technology to plot routes that trimmed several years off of Voyager's journey. The lab became an important asset to Voyager and was Seven's domain for the rest of the journey. ( VOY : " Revulsion ", " Year of Hell ") Using the astrometrics lab, Seven discovered the Hirogen communications network, which allowed Voyager to temporarily receive messages from the Alpha Quadrant. ( VOY : " Hunters ") When monthly data streams and, later, real-time communication became possible, Seven helped implement enhancements to Voyager's deflector dish. ( VOY : " Life Line ", " Author, Author ")

Seven developed a technique for using Borg nanoprobes to revive an individual who had been dead several hours. It was used on Neelix in 2374. ( VOY : " Mortal Coil ")

A team led by Seven adapted a Borg design to contain and destroy Omega molecules found in the Delta Quadrant in 2374. The molecules temporarily stabilized while in the chamber. Seven was the only one to see it happen as the Borg considered the Omega Molecule to be "perfection" in its purest form (but had never been able to stabilize it), the former drone underwent what could be described as a religious experience when she saw Omega spontaneously stabilize. ( VOY : " The Omega Directive ")

Seven was part of the team which designed and built the Delta Flyer shuttlecraft in 2375. She developed Borg-based technology and weapons for it. ( VOY : " Extreme Risk ")

Seven assisted in the construction of the quantum slipstream drive installed aboard Voyager in 2375. In an alternate timeline, the use of the drive destroyed the ship, killing her and everyone else aboard. However, just after the drive was activated, a signal from that timeline was received by Seven via her cortical implants. This signal contained phase corrections that, when used, collapsed the slipstream, eliminating that timeline and saving the ship and crew. ( VOY : " Timeless ")

When Voyager crossed the territory of the anti-telepathic Devore in 2375, Seven helped develop a transporter suspension technique in order to hide telepathic crewmembers and Brenari refugees. ( VOY : " Counterpoint ")

She also gave Voyager the possibility to use a transwarp coil, which was then used to save her from the Borg and then to advance twenty thousand light years towards home. ( VOY : " Dark Frontier ")

In 2376, Seven developed enhancements to her alcove that allowed her to process information and make connections between various events while she regenerated. This allowed Seven to deduce that photonic fleas had been degrading sensor efficiency and that a catapult built by an alien named Tash employed a tetryon reactor like that of the Caretaker's array. However, the process overloaded her cortical implants, and she began drawing wild conclusions concerning Voyager's mission and crew. She convinced Chakotay that Voyager's presence in the Delta Quadrant was intentional and a prelude to a joint Federation/Cardassian invasion, while later telling Captain Janeway that Chakotay was organizing a Maquis rebellion, using technology of the Caretaker, to launch strikes on Federation and Cardassian targets. She then began to believe that Voyager was sent to the Delta Quadrant to retrieve her from the Borg Collective, and that she would be analyzed and dissected upon return to the Alpha Quadrant. She left the ship in the Delta Flyer, but Janeway was able to convince her that this 'conspiracy' was only a delusion caused by her alcove enhancements. She returned to Voyager and the enhancements were removed. ( VOY : " The Voyager Conspiracy ")

A hologram of Reginald Barclay was transmitted to Voyager in early 2377. The hologram supposedly brought information to Voyager about using a geodesic fold to return the ship to the Alpha Quadrant. In reality, the hologram had been intercepted and reprogrammed by Ferengi, who wanted to harvest Seven of Nine's nanoprobes and sell them for profit. Although the holo-Barclay claimed modifications to the shields would protect Voyager while in the fold, Seven eventually discovered that the hologram was deceiving them. ( VOY : " Inside Man ")

Moral conflicts

Voyager rescued a member of Species 8472 from a Hirogen hunting party in mid 2374. Captain Janeway wanted to return the creature to its native fluidic space because it had told Tuvok of its plight telepathically it meant no harm and just wanted to go home. The Hirogen, however, wanted to hunt and kill it. They threatened to destroy Voyager unless the 8472 was returned to them. Seven felt that it should be surrendered in order to protect Voyager, but Captain Janeway strongly disagreed, saying that it was wrong to sacrifice another lifeform to save themselves. Seven refused to help open a quantum singularity into fluidic space to allow the 8472 to return to its realm, and Janeway confined her to the cargo bay. The Doctor needed nanoprobes to help treat the injured alien, and Seven was ordered to bring them to The Doctor so he could treat it. At the same time, a Hirogen hunter who had been injured from his initial hunt of the 8472, and who The Doctor had been treating, attacked the 8472. Seven transported both the Hirogen and the Species 8472 to a Hirogen vessel, which then retreated. Janeway was not happy with Seven's conduct, and revoked most of her privileges until she proved trustworthy once again. Seven believed she was being punished for asserting her individuality and her personal beliefs, which the Voyager crew had fostered since she had been freed from the Collective. ( VOY : " Prey ")

Voyager encountered Entharan weapons broker Kovin in 2374. Seven worked with him and viewed the weapons he offered to sell, but was very much uncomfortable around him. She later struck him in engineering. With The Doctor's help, Seven recovered memories which suggested Kovin had assaulted her and stolen nanoprobes for use as weapons. Circumstantial evidence also supported her story, and Voyager tried to apprehend Kovin. It is later determined that her memories were simply ones from her time as a Borg drone mixed with experiences of Kovin. Unfortunately, Kovin was killed when Voyager tried to contact him and tell him of his innocence. Both Seven and The Doctor experienced deep remorse over contributing to Kovin's death. ( VOY : " Retrospect ")

Working to contain the Omega particles

When the Omega particles were found in the Delta Quadrant, Seven held a certain fascination with them, since the Borg had tried, unsuccessfully, to stabilize the molecules. She believed they held the key to perfection and that she would be able to use the Borg research to stabilize the molecules. However, Captain Janeway believed it was too risky and the molecules were destroyed. They spontaneously stabilized shortly before being destroyed by Voyager. Seven witnessed this and experienced one of her first spiritual moments in the process. ( VOY : " The Omega Directive ")

A race of bounty hunters known as the Hazari began attacking Voyager in 2375. A group of aliens called the Think Tank offered to help Voyager defeat the Hazari, but wanted Seven of Nine as payment. Kurros, a member of the Think Tank, tried to appeal to Seven's quest for perfection and have her join willingly, but she declined his offer. Further investigation revealed that Kurros had hired the Hazari to attack Voyager for the express purpose of taking Seven of Nine. The crew developed a plan with the Hazari which involved Seven willingly joining the Think Tank. Once with them, she would disable systems aboard their vessel. Kurros sensed deception, and forced Seven to link with the Think Tank's telepathic net. She overloaded the network as the link was established, disrupting the function of their entire ship. Seven was returned to Voyager as the Think Tank was overwhelmed with a Hazari attack squadron. ( VOY : " Think Tank ")

In 2376, Voyager docked at a Markonian outpost. While there, Seven of Nine encountered the group of drones which she had linked together eight years prior. They had since been liberated from the Collective, but were permanently linked due to Seven's modifications. They attacked Seven in order to find out what she had done to them, but were stopped by Voyager security. Seven later voluntarily linked with the drones to retrieve the memories of the crash, but further damage was caused when the link was broken. Even though the drones were no longer connected to one another, all but Seven were left comatose. They needed their neural implants removed, but it would only give them a month to live. They could be saved if reassimilated into the Borg Collective, but Seven decided that a brief life as an individual was much more valuable than eternal life as a drone, and she ordered The Doctor to remove the implants. The former drones were still upset about the decision made by Seven eight years prior, but understood her reasons and were grateful for their new-found freedom, however short. ( VOY : " Survival Instinct ")

Also that year, Seven was part of an away team which discovered the Vaadwaur race, placed in stasis centuries prior. Seven was excited at the prospect of helping to rebuild a society in order to atone for the destruction she participated in while a member of the Collective, and worked with the Vaadwaur to find them a new home. It was later determined that the Vaadwaur were warlike and hostile, and their awakening placed the region of space near their homeworld in great danger. Seven was upset that her intention to help may have caused further suffering. ( VOY : " Dragon's Teeth ")

Again during the same year, Seven and an injured Tuvok were captured by Penk, a Norcadian who organized the spectator sport Tsunkatse, and Seven was forced to fight in the ring. After rescue, Tuvok thanked her for taking his place in a red match and asked if she had recovered. Seven said that her victory only came from her loss of control, and worried that the three years she had spent regaining her Humanity were lost in the ring. However, Tuvok pointed out that her feelings of guilt, shame and remorse meant that her Humanity had been reaffirmed, not lost. ( VOY : " Tsunkatse ")

Seven held hostage by Iko

In 2377, Seven became friends with a Nygean man named Iko, who had committed murder and had been sentenced to death on his homeworld. Initially, Iko took Seven prisoner when he was beamed aboard Voyager and made threats to the crew. He later became remorseful when his body and conscience were "healed" by Seven's nanoprobes after he was severely beaten by Yediq, the prison warden, when he threatened his family. Seven tried to help him avoid his death sentence, but his crime could not be forgiven by the victim's family and he was put to death. Seven was left troubled at the idea that Iko was executed for one murder while she had never been punished for her own actions in the Borg, but Janeway assured her that her time in the Collective was punishment enough. ( VOY : " Repentance ")

Dealings with the Borg

Stealing a transwarp coil

While transporting back to Voyager in 2375, a malfunction caused nanoprobes from Seven's bloodstream to merge with The Doctor's mobile emitter. The nanoprobes quickly assimilated the advanced 29th century technology, and used genetic material from Mulchaey to create an advanced Borg drone, with the emitter at its core. The drone lacked Borg programming, giving Seven the opportunity to communicate with him. She attempted to teach him to be an individual, and he was even given the name One by Neelix, but he wished to learn more about the Borg. Attempts to prevent the Borg from detecting One failed and his attempts to modify Voyager's weapons to fight them proved insufficient. He transported aboard the Borg vessel, destroying it from within. His built-in shielding allowed him to survive the explosion badly injured, but he refused treatment and died in Voyager's sickbay to keep the crew safe from constant assimilation threats. Seven mourned him as if she had lost a son. ( VOY : " Drone ")

Seven in Unimatrix Zero as Annika Hansen

Later in 2375, Voyager's crew prepared for a daring raid on a damaged Borg sphere in order to steal a transwarp coil and substantially shorten their journey home. Seven was contacted by the Borg Queen, who revealed that she had set a trap for Voyager and its crew would be assimilated if she did not return to the Collective. Seven reluctantly agreed, learning that she was deliberately granted her freedom as part of a larger plan to assimilate Humanity. Seven resisted the Queen's attempts to convince her to develop a nanoprobe virus and was eventually rescued by Voyager's crew. ( VOY : " Dark Frontier ")

In 2377 she discovered that she was one of a few Borg with a certain assimilation mutation that allowed them to retain their individuality while regenerating inside of an artificial construct known as Unimatrix Zero. Freed from the Collective, she was once again contacted by the others inside. They were on the verge of being discovered and needed her help. With some assistance from Voyager's crew, the drones were given the ability to retain their individuality outside of the construct. This allowed them to launch an open revolt against the Collective, plunging the Collective into civil war. ( VOY : " Unimatrix Zero ", " Unimatrix Zero, Part II ")

Identity crises

When the Hirogen overtook Voyager in 2374 and used its crew and holodecks to conduct hunts, Seven was assigned the identity of Mademoiselle de Neuf (literally, "Miss of Nine") in the French Resistance holoprogram. The Doctor was able to modify her Borg implants and restore her real identity without the Hirogen knowing. She worked with The Doctor and Ensign Kim to stage a counterstrike against the Hirogen and restore the identities of the rest of the crew. ( VOY : " The Killing Game ") Seven later modified explosives to emit a photonic burst which disabled holographic activity on part of the ship, a crucial event which allowed Captain Janeway to defeat the leader of the Hirogen and return control of the ship to the Starfleet crew. ( VOY : " The Killing Game, Part II ")

One of Seven's personalities: eating like a Klingon

Seven was stricken with something akin to a multiple-personality disorder in 2375 when Voyager neared a vinculum infected with a synthetic pathogen by Species 6339. Several personalities, including Starfleet officers, a Klingon warrior, a Vulcan official, a Krenim scientist, a Ferengi trader, a woman trying to find her son aboard the USS Melbourne at the Battle of Wolf 359, and a frightened young child, emerged. These turned out to be personalities of individuals assimilated by Seven, and it was soon made clear the malfunctions in her implants were precisely what Species 6339 wished to inflict on the rest of the Collective. The personalities began to take over Seven, and her own individuality was lost. Tuvok was able to use a mind meld to retrieve Seven's consciousness and the vinculum was deactivated. ( VOY : " Infinite Regress ")

In 2377, Voyager's crew was forced to abandon ship after hitting a subspace mine. They were rescued by rogue elements of the Quarren, and had their identities reassigned in order to supply labor and fill a shortage on the Quarren homeworld. The entire crew, except Chakotay, Kim, and Neelix, who were away on the Delta Flyer, had their memories of Voyager erased and false memories of terrible conditions on their homeworlds implanted. Seven started to use her real name, Annika Hansen, and was given a job as an efficiency monitor in a power distribution plant, working with several other Voyager crew members including Captain Janeway, Tuvok, and B'Elanna Torres. Her Borg desire for perfection made her perfectly suited for the job, and she was often overzealous in chastising workers. The identity reassignment did not completely work on Tuvok, though, and he began to remember his former life, including Seven of Nine. He mind-melded with her, causing memories of her life on Voyager and as a drone to resurface. ( VOY : " Workforce ") As the flashbacks continued, Annika investigated Tuvok's records. She believed there was a connection to the disappearance of Torres, who had been rescued by the remaining Voyager crew, and Annika later learned that Tuvok had accessed files of most of the Voyager crew, including Janeway, Torres, and herself. This led her to realize the inconsistency that many new workers from the same species began work on the same day, which was unusual during a labor shortage. Additionally, they were all brought through the neuropathology division, although none of the workers remembered this. Her suspicions were dismissed and explained as an outbreak of Dysphoria Syndrome. Annika was undaunted, and later visited the neuropathology division complaining of the flashbacks in order to access their computer system. While there, she discovered the Dysphoria Syndrome outbreak was actually a cover-up masterminded by a Quarren doctor called Kadan, to hide the fact that Voyager's crew and many others had been abducted. This confirmed the story Chakotay had told to Captain Janeway, and Annika and a Quarren official, Yerid, went to the hospital to prevent Kadan from using the reassignment technique on Chakotay and Tuvok. They succeeded, and the entire Voyager crew was transported back to the ship. The Doctor was successful in restoring the identities of the entire crew. ( VOY : " Workforce, Part II ")


Contents

The MGA design dates back to 1951, when MG designer Syd Enever created a streamlined body for George Philips' TD Le Mans car. The new bodywork traded the MG TF's articulated fenders and running board for ponton styling, with a single styled envelope fully enclosing the width and uninterrupted length of a car.

The TF featured a high driver seating position. A new chassis was designed with the side members further apart and the floor attached to the bottom rather than the top of the frame sections. A prototype was built and shown to the BMC chairman Leonard Lord. He turned down the idea of producing the new car as he had just signed a deal with Donald Healey to produce Austin-Healey cars two weeks before. Falling sales of the traditional MG models caused a change of heart, and the car, initially to be called the UA-series, was brought back. As it was so different from the older MG models it was called the MGA, the "first of a new line" to quote the contemporary advertising. There was also a new engine available, therefore the car did not have the originally intended XPAG unit but was fitted with the BMC B-series engine allowing a lower bonnet line. The MGA convertible had no exterior door handles, however the coupe had door handles. [4]

It was a body-on-frame design and used the straight-4 "B series" engine from the MG Magnette saloon driving the rear wheels through a four-speed gearbox. Suspension was independent with coil springs and wishbones at the front and a rigid axle with semi-elliptic springs at the rear. Steering was by rack and pinion. The car was available with either wire-spoked or steel-disc road wheels.

While the make (or marque) is MG, the model was named MGA by John Thornley in 1954.

The 1489 cc engine fitted with twin H4 type SU Carburettors produced 68 hp (51 kW) at first, but was soon uprated to 72 hp (54 kW). Lockheed hydraulic drum brakes were used on all wheels. A coupé version was also produced, bringing the total production of standard MGAs to 58,750. [5]

An early open car tested by British magazine The Motor in 1955 had a top speed of 97.8 mph (157.4 km/h) and could accelerate from 0–60 mph (97 km/h) in 16.0 seconds. A fuel consumption of 26.7 miles per imperial gallon (10.6 L/100 km 22.2 mpg‑US) was recorded. The test car cost £844 including taxes. [2]

1958 MG MGA roadster (North America)

MGA 1500 from rear quarter

MG MGA with pressed steel wheels (North America)

A high-performance Twin-Cam model was added for 1958. It used a high-compression (9.9:1 later 8.3:1) DOHC aluminium cylinder head version of the B-Series engine producing 108 hp (81 kW 109 PS). Due to detonation problems, a 100 bhp (75 kW 101 PS) low-compression version was introduced later. [6] Four-wheel disc brakes by Dunlop were fitted, along with Dunlop peg drive knock-off steel wheels similar to wheels used on racing Jaguars, unique to the Twin-Cam and "DeLuxe" MGA 1600 and 1600 MkII roadsters. These wheels and chassis upgrades were used on a small number of the "DeLuxe" models built after Twin-Cam production came to a halt. [7] Aside from the wheels, the only outside identifier was a "Twin-Cam" logo near the vent aside the bonnet. A careful look at the rear wheel vents would also reveal another feature unique to Twin-Cam and DeLuxe: those four-wheel Dunlop disc brakes mentioned above.

The temperamental engine was notorious for warranty problems during the course of production, and sales dropped quickly. The engine suffered from detonation and burnt oil. [7] Most of the problems with the Twin-Cam engine were rectified with the low-compression version, but by then the damage had been done. [7] The Twin-Cam was dropped in 1960 after 2,111 [5] (2,210 according to some [6] ) had been produced. Production ended in April 1960, but had slowed to a trickle long before. [6]

An open car was tested by The Motor magazine in 1958 and was found to have a top speed of 113 mph (182 km/h), acceleration from 0–60 mph (97 km/h) in 9.1 seconds and a fuel consumption of 27.6 miles per imperial gallon (10.2 L/100 km 23.0 mpg‑US) was recorded. The test car cost £1,283 including taxes of £428. [8]

Oddly, an open MGA Twin Cam (index PMO 326), road tested by The Autocar magazine in its 18 July 1958 edition only recorded a 0-60 time of 13.3secs with the standing quarter mile of 18.6secs. The mean maximum speed was 113.5 mph, with a best of 114.0 mph.

In May 1959 the standard cars also received an updated engine, now at 1588 cc producing 79.5 bhp (59 kW 81 PS) . At the front disc brakes were fitted, but drums remained in the rear.

31,501 were produced in less than three years. [5]

Externally the car is very similar to the 1500 with differences including: amber or white (depending on market) front turn indicators shared with white parking lamps, separate stop/tail and turn lamps in the rear, and 1600 badging on the boot and the cowl.

A number of 1600 De Luxe versions were produced with leftover special wheels and four-wheel disc brakes of the departed Twin-Cam, or using complete modified Twin-cam chassis left redundant by the discontinuance of that model. Seventy roadsters and 12 coupés were built.

A 1600 open car was tested by The Motor in 1959. It had a top speed of 96.1 mph (154.7 km/h) and could accelerate from 0–60 mph (97 km/h) in 13.3 seconds. A fuel consumption of 29.7 miles per imperial gallon (9.5 L/100 km 24.7 mpg‑US) was recorded. The test car cost £940 including taxes of £277. [9]

The engine size was increased again to 1622 cc by increasing the bore from 75.4 mm (2.97 in) to 76.2 mm (3.00 in) for the 1961 Mark II MGA. The cylinder head was also revised with larger valves and re-engineered combustion chambers. Horsepower increased to 90 bhp. It also had a higher ratio 4:1 rear axle, which made for more relaxed high-speed driving. An inset grille and Morris Mini tail lamps appearing horizontally below the deck lid were the most obvious visual changes. 8,198 Mark II roadsters and 521 coupés were built. [5]

Road & Track magazine reviewed the MG A 1600 Mark II in the September 1961 issue and reported an estimated top speed of 105 mph and a 0-60 acceleration of 12.8 seconds.

The inset grille fitted to the 1600 Mark II

1600 Mark II DeLuxe Roadster, with knock-off steel wheels

As with the 1600 De Luxe, there were also some Mark II De Luxe versions 290 roadsters and 23 coupés were produced.

The MGA's bodywork was based largely on that of a one-off MG TD specially built by the MG factory at the request of racing privateer George Phillips for the 1951 24 Hours of Le Mans. Later, a new chassis was designed so as to seat the driver lower in the car with even cleaner bodywork resulting in the EX 175 prototype.

The later MG prototype EX 182 was very close to the final production MGA and was the car actually raced at Le Mans in 1955. Three MGA prototypes were entered at Le Mans in 1955. Two of the cars finished the race placing 12th and 17th overall, proving the worth of the new car. The third car crashed with serious injuries to the driver, Dick Jacobs.

The MGA has been raced extensively in the U.S. since its 1955 introduction and with considerable success. In Sports Car Club of America competition the MGA has won numerous regional and national championships. It has also been a favourite choice of those competing in vintage racing. Kent Prather has been the most successful American MGA driver to date with G Production wins at the SCCA national championships in 1986, 1990, 1995, 2002, 2003, and 2005. Prather and his MGA accomplished this despite the fact that his MGA was often the oldest vehicle competing among several hundred race cars at the SCCA Runoffs.

In the United States, the MGA was used in NASCAR from 1960 to 1963 in the Grand National Series, failing to win a single race. After production ended of the MGA, MG (which at that point was the last foreign automaker in NASCAR) decided not to field another entry in the circuit, which resulted in a de facto oligopoly of the NASCAR circuit by Detroit's Big Three. Aside from a brief period in the 1970s when American Motors fielded the AMC Matador in NASCAR competition, not another non-Detroit automaker—let alone a non-American automaker—would enter NASCAR until 2007, when Toyota entered NASCAR competition with the Camry.


“Read the riot act”

Meaning: To reprimand someone for behaving badly, with the intention of improving that person’s behavior

Example: Taylor was being too loud in class, so I read her the riot act.

Origin: This idiom most likely comes from the real Riot Act, an act passed by the British government in 1714 to prevent unruly assemblies. In the 18th century King George I and the government were fearful of being overthrown by supporters of the previous Stuart dynasty. If crowds of more than 12 assembled, authorities could read them a portion of the Riot Act, upon which they must leave or be imprisoned. Thus, if someone is behaving in a manner that we find inappropriate, we “read them the riot act,” intending to get the unruly person to stop what they’re doing.


Where to Find the River Exe Map Clue in Assassin’s Creed Valhalla

The Map Clue of the River Exe can be found at Escanceaster Monastery. It’s located on the east side of the river, right in the center of the landmass. There’ll be some mooks guarding the place, so either sneak past them or stomp them all.

Find the church located on the Monastery’s left side. Inside the church, there should be a small table with a distinctive piece of paper on it. That’s your clue! Simply interact with the paper to obtain the clue. With the clue in your possession, you’ll be able to find the Cape and Shield of Saint George, so look in the designated spots with Odin’s Vision.

Just a heads up, don’t bother looking for the armor without the clues. Their locations are randomized, and they won’t even spawn until you’ve picked the clue up.


Expansion: Together for Victory

History forged the ties. Empire made them tighter. Can war tear them apart?

Play Trailer

New national focus trees and events for Canada, Australia, New Zealand, The Raj (India) and South Africa

Alternate historical path for each of the Dominions, with options to stay loyal to Great Britain, or forge a new, more independent destiny

New autonomy system giving subject states degrees of independence from a foreign master

A Spearhead battleplan command allowing more control over grand encirclements and punching through enemy lines

Technology sharing will allow Commonwealth nations to quickly catch up with British assistance


Upright Seven of Cups

The Seven of Cups is a card of new opportunities, choices, and at times, illusion. When the Seven of Cups appears in a Tarot reading, you have many options and opportunities from which you can choose. But be careful! You are prone to illusion and unrealistic ideals. An opportunity with promises of more money, more fame, or more power may sound appealing, but as you look deeper into what is on offer, you may realise it’s not everything it’s cracked up to be. Your ego may pull you in a specific direction, but it’s important you check in with your Higher Self first. Evaluate your options and dig below the surface to discover what’s involved with each choice.

Often, the Seven of Cups can be a sign of wishful thinking and projecting into the future about what you would like to create, rather than taking action here in the present to make it happen. For example, you may wish for a fitter, more healthy body, until it's time to get out there and exercise. Or you might wish for a successful business fuelled by passive income, but you’re not ready and willing to put in the hard work now to enjoy the fruits of your labour later. If you spend most of your time wishing but not doing the work, then it’s time to choose just one thing and make it happen.

You may find that your ideas are not grounded in reality. Your plans might sound fabulous in your imagination, but when it comes to implementing them, you may realise they do not work in the real world.

The Seven of Cups may be a sign of ‘shiny object syndrome’, where you keep finding the ‘next big thing’ but fail to see any of those new opportunities through to the end. When you are constantly in the idea phase, you miss the chance to bring your designs into fruition. Again, now is a time to focus on the one thing that will move you closer to your goal resist the temptation to get side-tracked with other ideas as they arise. If need be, note your ideas as they come up, but stay focused on the one thing you’re doing.

This card is inviting you to move out of the ideas and options phase and choose. Each will have its pros and cons – it’s up to you to make sure that the option you select is in alignment with your purpose and your Highest Good – even if you feel somewhat paralysed by the options available to you.


Roman Remains in Wales

Alabum Llandovery Roman Fort, Carmarthenshire
Roman Fort / Roman Road
Although not much of this 1st century auxiliary fort still remains, it is possible to see some scarped slopes to the north and west of St Marys Church. To the north of the church the path of a Roman road can also be seen. Finally, be sure to look out for Roman masonry which has been reused in the walls of the church.
Caer Gybi, Anglesey Roman Fort, Anglesey
Roman Fort
Built in the 4th century AD to protect Anglesey against Irish invaders, Caer Gybi is remarkably well preserved with some parts of the original wall standing to over 4 metres in height (notably the north-western corner). The other walls have Roman foundations although were rebuilt some time later.
Caerleon (Isca Augusta), Gwent
Romant Fort, Wall and Amphitheatre
Built in AD75 to support the Roman conquest of Wales, Isca Augusta once housed up to 5,000 soldiers and was not abandoned until the late 4th century / early 5th century AD. There is a phenomenal amount of remains still visible including an amphitheatre, baths and barracks.
Cardiff Roman Fort, Cardiff
Roman Fort
Although the majority of the Cardiff Roman Fort is a Victorian reconstruction, the original Roman walls can still be seen incorporated into certain portions of the Cardiff Castle. These visible remains are that of a Saxon Shore Short which was built around 300AD, although it is thought that the site housed at least two earlier forts.
Cold Knap, Barry, Barry Island
Roman Building, unknown use
Cold Knap was once a Roman port, and the remains of a 3rd century building can still be seen along the shore.
Dolaucothi Gold Mines and Luentinum Fort, Carmarthenshire
Roman Mines and Fort
Dolaucothi is though to have been the only Roman gold mine in Britannia, and would have been protected by an accompanying fort (known as Luentinum). In the 18th century a large hoard of Roman gold ornaments was found (now on show in the British Museum).
Moridunum, Carmarthen, Carmarthenshire
Roman Fort, Town and Amphitheatre
Situated in modern day Carmathen, the visible remains of Moidunum are limited to an amphitheatre thought to have been the furthest west ever built within the Roman empire. Artefacts from Moridunum excavations can be seen at the nearby museum in Abergwili.
Nidum, Neath, Neath
Roman Fort
Situated at the corner of a main road and a modern housing estate lies the remains of the south gate of Nidum Roman Fort.
Sarn Helen Roman Road, Powys
Roman Road
One of the best preserved Roman roads in the whole of Britain, the remains of both cobbles and a ditch are still visible at the Maen Madoc stone in the Brecon Beacons.
Segontium, Gwynedd
Roman Fort, Town and Temple
Built in around 80AD just a few years after completing their conquest of Wales, Segontium was the largest and most important Roman fort in north Wales. The remains of many of the forts buildings are still visible, quite surprising really considering that Edward I plundered most of the stonework for his castle at Caernarfon!
Tomen-y-Mur Roman Fort, Snowdonia
Roman Fort and Amphitheatre
Visible earthworks of a Roman amphitheatre (albeit a very small one), bath house, temple, parade ground and even a Roman road can be seen, although most of the remains here are from a much later Norman motte and bailey castle.
Venta Silurum, Monmouthshire
Urban Centre
Unquestionably the best surviving Roman town defence walls in Britain (standing up to 5 metres in places!), the remains at Venta Silurum also include a house with underfloor heating, basilica, forum and temple. The site is open to the public.
Y Gaer, Brecon Beacons
Roman Fort
Built in AD75 at the crossroads of two Roman roads, Y Gaer would have been occupied by a contingent of 500 Spanish-recruited cavalrymen. Visible remains today include the perimeter walls, gatehouses and guard towers.


Watch the video: Crossing the Worlds Most Dangerous Estuary - A brief History (December 2021).