Horace

Quintus Horatius Flaccus (65-8 BCE), better known to most modern readers as Horace, was one of Rome's best-loved poets and, along with his fellow poet Virgil, a member of Emperor Augustus' inner circle at the imperial palace. Despite his early allegiance to one of Julius Caesar's assassins during the early dark days of the civil war, Horace eventually became a close friend to the emperor and supported his attempts at moral reform, believing it brought new life to a suffering empire, a new golden age.

Early Life

Horace was born on December 8, 65 BCE, in the town of Venusia in Apulia, a region in southeastern Italy, bordering the Adriatic Sea. As an adult, he was described by the Roman historian Suetonius as being short and fat. His father was a freedman and small landowner in Venusia, working part-time as a public auctioneer or co-actor; historians disagree on whether or not he had ever been a slave. Suetonius added that his father may have been a 'dealer in salted provisions.' Obviously, Horace's father was capable enough to send the young poet to Rome and Athens (where he studied literature and philosophy) to complete his education.

Virgil, Horace, & the banished poet Ovid created a classical style that many believed was comparable to that of the ancient Greeks.

It was while Horace was in Athens that he joined the army of Caesar's assassin Marcus Junius Brutus as a tribunus militum or military commander (a post normally held by a member of the equestrian class) against the heir apparent Octavian (the future Augustus). The assassin's forces eventually lost at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BCE, and this defeat left the impressionable Horace and many others with a bitter taste for warfare. Unfortunately, his support of Brutus cost him his family's property.

Despite having supported Caesar's assassin, Horace returned to Rome where he was fortunate to procure a position in government as a scriba quaestorius, an accountant or cashier, working under a quaestor in the imperial treasury. Some question whether or not he actually held the position having opposed Augustus at Philippi, nevertheless, Suetonius claimed he was pardoned and purchased the position. It was at this time that Horace wrote his first series of poems, something that brought him into contact with both Virgil, the author of the Aeneid, and the poet Varius Rufus, the author of De Morte, a poem intended to comfort men and not to fear death. Rufus was a devout follower of the philosopher Epicurus and his school 'The Garden.' Horace was drawn to the Epicurean philosophy and its principle that pleasure was the only good. According to historian M. Beard, both Virgil and Horace represented 'memorable and eloquent images' of the new 'golden age' of Rome. In the words of historian N. Rodgers, Virgil, Horace, and the banished poet Ovid created a classical style that many believed was comparable to that of the ancient Greeks.

Protégé of Maecenas

Luckily for Horace, Virgil and Rufus introduced him to a man who would have a profound effect on his life, Gaius Maecenas. Maecenas was a wealthy Roman and patron of the arts who gathered around him a circle of young poets. He was not only an author himself but a personal friend and advisor to Augustus, and through him, Horace would meet the emperor. The young poet soon became a favorite of Maecenas, eventually giving him an estate in the Sabine Hills near Rome at Tivoli. It was a place where Horace, having become financially secure, would eventually build a villa.

In keeping with the Epicurean philosophy, Horace's poems demonstrated a joy for life and a love of nature. Published around 30 BCE when he was around 35 years old, the Epodes or Iambi were 17 elegiac poems, many of which were written before he met Maecenas. The poems alluded to Octavian's victory at the Battle of Actium and his defeat of both Mark Antony and the Egyptian queen Cleopatra. The poems not only speak of politics but also of love and his admiration for the rural way of life. N. Rodgers quoted him as saying, "Happy the man who far from business ploughs again his ancestral lands" (385).

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The Epodes were soon followed by the two books of the Satires, also called the Sermones or 'Conversations.' Besides a criticism of the vice that was rampant in Rome, he wrote of a journey he took with Maecenas to Brundisium and the resettlement of the civil war veterans. Some view the poems as autobiographical, containing poems as tributes to Maecenas and Horace's father.

Poetry & Philosophy

Although poorly received, Horace's next work was the three books and 88 poems of the Odes. These lyrical poems celebrated Rome in the age of Augustus. After their publication, the emperor would encourage the poet to write a fourth book of 15 poems. Horace said the poems were hymns to the gods and modeled after the great Greek authors, among them Alcaeus, Sappho, and Pindar. Horace always had a deep respect and admiration of the Greeks and believed Rome had to recognize the Greek superiority in all intellectual and cultural fields. In these poems he again praised Augustus for his victory at Actium and for bringing peace to a troubled people, restoring the lost customs and morality of the city's past.

However, there were those who considered Horace to have a romantic side. Although a life-long bachelor, he seemed to respect commitment. This is evident in Poem 13 in Odes Book 1:

Three times blessed and more are they
who are united with an unbroken bond;
no wretched quarrels shall ever separate
our love before the final days of life.

(Branyon, 29)

Although he wrote earlier in his Satires: "Love has two evils, war and then peace" (Branyon, 109).

In his next two books, the Epistles, Horace turned away from poetry momentarily and turned to a philosophic reflection, writing on the right way of life. Published around 21 BCE, the first book was a series of letters written to a variety of individuals, telling of the circumstances of his own life and offering counsel. In the second book, Ars Poetica, Horace wrote on the art of writing poetry. About his own difficulty in the writing of poetry, he wrote, "Struggling to be brief, I become obscure" (Ars Poetica, Line 25) He also penned two letters, one to Augustus and one to his fellow Roman poet Publius Annius Florus.

Later years

Over the years the emperor and Horace had become very close; the emperor called Horace his 'little charmer.' In 17 BCE Augustus asked him to write a secular hymn commemorating the 800th anniversary of Rome's founding. Augustus also asked him to join his staff to help draft correspondence, but the poet declined. On this request, Suetonius wrote that due to poor health and demanding workload, the emperor appealed to Maecenas to let Horace come to the palace to 'help him write his letters.' On November 27, 8 BCE Horace died, two months after his life-long friend Maecenas, and was buried near his tomb. Despite legislation enacted by the emperor against bachelorhood, Horace never married, and so, according to Suetonius, Augustus was named as heir of his estate.


Horace Bushnell

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Horace Bushnell, (born April 14, 1802, Bantam, Connecticut, U.S.—died February 17, 1876, Hartford, Connecticut), Congregational minister and controversial theologian, sometimes called “the father of American religious liberalism.” He grew up in the rural surroundings of New Preston, Connecticut, joined the Congregational Church in 1821, and in 1823 entered Yale with plans to become a minister. After his graduation in 1827, however, he taught school briefly, served as associate editor of the New York Journal of Commerce, and studied law at Yale. Not until 1831, after he had qualified for the bar, did his religious doubts diminish sufficiently for him to begin his theological education. He entered Yale Divinity School and in 1833 was ordained minister of the North Congregational Church in Hartford, where he served for more than 20 years until ill health forced his resignation.

A major figure in American intellectual history, Bushnell stood between the orthodox tradition of Puritan New England and the new romantic impulses represented by Ralph Waldo Emerson, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, and especially Friedrich Schleiermacher. His first significant publication, Christian Nurture (1847), was a thorough critique of the prevailing emphasis placed on the conversion experience by revivalists. In God in Christ (1849), published in the year of his mystical experience that illumined the gospel for him, Bushnell challenged the traditional, substitutionary view of the atonement (i.e., that the death of Christ was the substitute for man’s punishment for sin) and considered problems of language, emphasizing the social, symbolic, and evocative nature of language as related to religious faith and the mysteries of God. Christ in Theology (1851) amplified and defended his attitude toward theological language, giving special attention to metaphoric language and to an instrumental view of the Trinity. In Nature and the Supernatural (1858) he viewed the twin elements of the title as constituting the one “system of God” and sought to defend from skeptical attack the Christian position on sin, miracles, incarnation, revelation, and Christ’s divinity.

Bushnell’s views were bitterly attacked, and in 1852 North Church withdrew from the local “consociation” in order to preclude an ecclesiastical heresy trial. Despite such opposition, however, his ability to assemble and present coherent arguments guaranteed the impact and influence of his interpretation of Christianity. Among his numerous works are The Vicarious Sacrifice (1866), Forgiveness and Law (1874), and six volumes of essays and sermons. An essay on “ Science and Religion” (1868) shows his resistance to Darwinian evolutionary theory. His moderate and cautious views on social issues are recorded in A Discourse on the Slavery Question (1839) The Census and Slavery (1860) and Women’s Suffrage: The Reform Against Nature (1869).

This article was most recently revised and updated by Amy Tikkanen, Corrections Manager.


Horace was born in Venusia, a small town in southern Italy, to a formerly enslaved mother. He was fortunate to have been the recipient of intense parental direction. His father spent a comparable fortune on his education, sending him to Rome to study. He later studied in Athens amidst the Stoics and Epicurean philosophers, immersing himself in Greek poetry.

While led a life of scholarly idyll in Athens, a revolution came to Rome. Julius Caesar was murdered, and Horace fatefully lined up behind Brutus in the conflicts that would ensue. His learning enabled him to become a commander during the Battle of Philippi, but Horace saw his forces routed by those of Octavian and Mark Antony, another stop on the former’s road to becoming Emperor Augustus. When he returned to Italy, Horace found that his family’s estate had been expropriated by Rome, and Horace was, according to his writings, left destitute.


Horace, Kansas

Horace was founded in 1886. [7] The city is named after Horace Greeley of Chappaqua, New York, editor of the New York Tribune. [8] [9] Greeley encouraged western settlement with the motto "Go West, young man". [10]

A post office was opened in Horace in 1886, and remained in operation until it was discontinued in 1965. [11]

On November 6, 2007, voters in rural Greeley County and in Tribune approved a consolidation of the county and the city. [12] Horace, however, decided against consolidation. [13]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1890150
190090 −40.0%
1910189 110.0%
1920212 12.2%
1930230 8.5%
1940234 1.7%
1950258 10.3%
1960195 −24.4%
1970137 −29.7%
1980137 0.0%
1990168 22.6%
2000143 −14.9%
201070 −51.0%
2019 (est.)66 [3] −5.7%
U.S. Decennial Census

2010 census Edit

As of the census [2] of 2010, there were 70 people, 33 households, and 22 families residing in the city. The population density was 280.0 inhabitants per square mile (108.1/km 2 ). There were 47 housing units at an average density of 188.0 per square mile (72.6/km 2 ). The racial makeup of the city was 94.3% White, 2.9% African American, and 2.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.7% of the population.

There were 33 households, of which 30.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.5% were married couples living together, 9.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.0% had a male householder with no wife present, and 33.3% were non-families. 33.3% of all households were made up of individuals, and 3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.12 and the average family size was 2.68.

The median age in the city was 46.6 years. 22.9% of residents were under the age of 18 4.2% were between the ages of 18 and 24 15.7% were from 25 to 44 41.5% were from 45 to 64 and 15.7% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 47.1% male and 52.9% female.

2000 census Edit

As of the census [4] of 2000, there were 143 people, 55 households, and 37 families residing in the city. The population density was 592.3 people per square mile (230.1/km 2 ). There were 66 housing units at an average density of 273.4 per square mile (106.2/km 2 ). The racial makeup of the city was 94.41% White, 0.70% African American, 2.80% from other races, and 2.10% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 15.38% of the population.

There were 55 households, out of which 38.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.4% were married couples living together, 5.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 32.7% were non-families. 29.1% of all households were made up of individuals, and 5.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.22.

In the city, the population was spread out, with 31.5% under the age of 18, 6.3% from 18 to 24, 36.4% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, and 5.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 123.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 122.7 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $26,875, and the median income for a family was $43,125. Males had a median income of $30,625 versus $21,250 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,602. There were 15.6% of families and 20.4% of the population living below the poverty line, including 25.5% of under eighteens and none of those over 64.


HistoryLink.org

Horace Cayton, an ex-slave, came to Seattle in the late 1880s and in a few years was publishing the Seattle Republican, a newspaper directed at both white and black readers and which at one point had the second largest circulation in the city.

Born in 1859 on a Mississippi plantation, he and his family moved to a farm near Port Gibson, Mississippi, after Emancipation. He worked his way through Alcorn College, graduating in the early 1880s.

Convinced that with his education and a will to succeed he could reach his real potential by leaving the South, he headed west, stopping briefly in Kansas, Salt Lake City, and Portland before finally ending up in Seattle, where he began working for the soon-defunct Populist newspaper. Later he worked as a political reporter for the Seattle Post-Intelligencer.

The Seattle Standard, founded in 1892 by Brittain Oxendine, was the city’s first newspaper for black people, and Horace Cayton found employment there until 1893, when it too failed. Seeking to publish a paper that appealed to both black and white people, he issued the first edition of the Seattle Republican on May 19,1894.

By 1896, he had courted and married a young woman he had met in college. Susie Revels Cayton was the daughter of Hiram Revels, the first black person elected to the U.S. Senate. She became associate editor of the paper.

The paper, according to Horace Cayton, "stands for right, and champions the cause of the oppressed. The success of the Republican Party is one of its highest ambitions." And, indeed, it was political, with news of national, state, and local politics in each issue and with his own Republican opinions. Pride in his race was evidenced in reportage of local black success stories and activities in the black community.

The Republican Party, the party of Lincoln, attracted many black people and Horace Cayton was able to win an important position in the party. He was a frequent delegate to the county and state nominating conventions, secretary of the party’s King County convention in 1902, and for several years a member of the Republican State Central Committee.

In Seattle, between 1900 and 1910, the number of blacks had risen from 406 to 2,300, and white prejudice grew. Politically Cayton lost power and, after 1910, he never sat on the Republican State Central Committee or attended a Republican convention.

Horace Cayton became the victim of Seattle’s changing racial and political pattern. In 1917, the Seattle Republican folded three months after Cayton published an article about a Southern lynching. Subscriptions were canceled and advertisements were dropped. He continued to pursue a career in publishing, and issued Cayton’s Weekly from 1916 until 1921, but was unable to make it an economic success.

He lost his beautiful home at 518 14th Avenue North (now East) on Capitol Hill where he and his wife employed a Japanese houseboy and from time to time a Swedish maid, and where Booker T. Washington and other celebrities visited. The family moved to a small house near Mt. Baker Park. In addition, Cayton purchased a three-story wood-framed apartment house on 22nd Avenue near Jackson Street to manage, and Mrs. Cayton found employment as a housekeeper. They entered into activities of the growing black community, participating in social and civic events. He continued his affiliation with the Republican Party through membership in the King County Colored Republican Club.

Horace Cayton died on August 16, 1940, and Susie Revels Cayton died in 1943.

Horace Cayton (b. 1859), ca. 1910, Seattle's Black Victorians (Seattle: Ananse Press, 1980) by Esther Hall Mumford, p. 87

Susie Revels Cayton, ca. 1894, Seattle's Black Victorians (Seattle: Ananse Press, 1980) by Esther Hall Mumford, p. 88

Courtesy Esther Mumford, Seattle's Black Victorians

Sources:

Horace Cayton, Long Old Road: An Autobiography (New York: Trident Press, 1965), 17-23 Esther Mumford, Seattle’s Black Victorians 1852-1901 (Seattle: Ananse Press, 1980), 86-91 Quintard Taylor, The Forging of a Black Community (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1994), 19-20.


What Horace family records will you find?

There are 10,000 census records available for the last name Horace. Like a window into their day-to-day life, Horace census records can tell you where and how your ancestors worked, their level of education, veteran status, and more.

There are 1,000 immigration records available for the last name Horace. Passenger lists are your ticket to knowing when your ancestors arrived in the USA, and how they made the journey - from the ship name to ports of arrival and departure.

There are 2,000 military records available for the last name Horace. For the veterans among your Horace ancestors, military collections provide insights into where and when they served, and even physical descriptions.

There are 10,000 census records available for the last name Horace. Like a window into their day-to-day life, Horace census records can tell you where and how your ancestors worked, their level of education, veteran status, and more.

There are 1,000 immigration records available for the last name Horace. Passenger lists are your ticket to knowing when your ancestors arrived in the USA, and how they made the journey - from the ship name to ports of arrival and departure.

There are 2,000 military records available for the last name Horace. For the veterans among your Horace ancestors, military collections provide insights into where and when they served, and even physical descriptions.


Horace King (1807-1885)

Horace King, born a slave on September 8, 1807, in Chesterfield District, South Carolina, was a successful bridge architect and builder in west Georgia, northern Alabama and northeast Georgia from the 1830s to the 1870s. King worked for his master, John Godwin who owned a successful construction business. Although King was enslaved, Godwin treated him as a valued employee and eventually gave him considerable influence over his business. Horace King supervised many of Godwin’s business activities, including the management of construction sites. In 1832, for example, King led a construction crew in building Moore’s Bridge, the first bridge crossing the lower Chattahoochee River in northwest Georgia. Later in the decade, Godwin and King constructed some of the largest bridges in Georgia, Alabama, and northeastern Mississippi. By the 1840s, King designed and supervised construction of major bridges at Wetumpka, Alabama and Columbus, Mississippi without Godwin’s supervision. Godwin issued five-year warranties on his bridges because of his confidence in King’s high quality work.

In 1839, Horace King married Frances Thomas, a free African American woman. The couple had had four boys and one girl. The King children eventually joined their father on various construction projects. In addition to building bridges, King constructed homes and government buildings for Godwin’s construction company. In 1841, King supervised the construction of the Russell County Courthouse in Alabama. Despite the success of the company in attracting work, Godwin fell into debt. King was emancipated by Godwin on February 3, 1846, to avoid his seizure by creditors. King continued to work for Godwin’s construction company and when his former owner died in 1859, King assumed control of Godwin’s business.

During the Civil War, King continued to work on construction projects, usually for the Confederacy, including a building for the Confederate navy near Columbus, Georgia. Confederate officials also forced King to block several waterways to prevent Union access to strategic points in Georgia and Alabama.

Horace King’s first wife, Frances Thomas King, died in 1864, and he married Sarah Jane Jones McManus after the end of the Civil War. King’s construction business prospered after the war he worked to reconstruct bridges, textile mills, cotton warehouses and public buildings destroyed during the conflict. After passing down the family business to his son, John Thomas King, Horace King was elected as a Republican to the Alabama House of Representatives, serving from 1870 to 1874.


Horace Silver

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Horace Silver, (born September 2, 1928, Norwalk, Connecticut, U.S.—died June 18, 2014, New Rochelle, New York), American jazz pianist, composer, and bandleader, exemplary performer of what came to be called the hard bop style of the 1950s and ’60s. The style was an extension of bebop, with elements of rhythm and blues, gospel, and Latin-American music added. The style was marked by increased interest in composing original tunes with unusual structures, in place of the bebop practice of loosely basing improvisations on the chord progressions of a few favourite pop tunes such as “I Got Rhythm,” “Indiana,” and “What Is This Thing Called Love?”

During the mid-1950s Silver was heard on records with Stan Getz, Miles Davis, and Art Blakey, and he cofounded the most typical hard bop group of the 1950s—the Jazz Messengers—with the latter. Silver then formed his own series of excellent quintets. Instead of having ensemble statements only at the beginning and end of a piece, the middle being simply a container for improvised solos, Silver wrote ensemble passages positioned within and between improvised solos, and he further arranged his music by using repeating accompaniment patterns instead of conventional “comping” (sporadic, syncopated bursts of chording that flexibly respond to the directions indicated by the improvising soloist). He also wrote bass lines to fit his left-hand piano figures. The harmonies he wrote for saxophone and trumpet, often fourths and fifths, made the quintet sound much larger than most bebop quintets. Silver’s piano solos were exceptionally clear and melodic, and he was not given to the standard practice, typified by his prime influence (Bud Powell), of improvising long, complex lines of eighth notes.

Silver’s best-known and longest-lived quintet (1958–64) had trumpeter Blue Mitchell and tenor saxophonist Junior Cook, but over the years Silver also employed many other outstanding musicians, including saxophonists Joe Henderson and Michael Brecker, trumpeters Art Farmer and Randy Brecker, and drummers Roy Brooks and Al Foster. Silver’s best-known compositions include “The Preacher,” “Señor Blues,” “Song for My Father,” “Sister Sadie,” “Nica’s Dream,” and “Filthy McNasty.” Silver exerted a wide influence, touching many pianists and jazz organists with the blues-derived aspects of his playing.

This article was most recently revised and updated by Amy Tikkanen, Corrections Manager.


Horace Greeley’s “The Prayer of Twenty Millions” is published

New York Tribune editor Horace Greeley publishes a passionate editorial calling on President Abraham Lincoln to declare emancipation for all enslaved people in Union-held territory. Greeley’s blistering words voiced the impatience of many Northern abolitionists but unbeknownst to Greeley and the public, Lincoln was already moving in the direction of emancipation.

In 1841, Greeley launched the Tribune, a newspaper to promote his reform ideas. He advocated temperance, westward expansion, and the labor movement, and opposed capital punishment and land monopoly. Greeley served a brief stint in the U.S. House of Representatives, and he introduced legislation that eventually became the Homestead Act of 1862.

Greeley was most passionate in his opposition to slavery, and was an important organizer of the Republican Party in 1854. When the war erupted, Greeley, along with many abolitionists, argued vociferously for a war policy constructed on the eradication of slavery. President Lincoln did not outwardly share these sentiments. For the war’s first year and a half, Lincoln was reluctant to alienate the border states of Missouri, Kentucky, Marylandਊnd Delaware, which practiced slavery but had not seceded.

In his editorial, “The Prayer of Twenty Millions,” Greeley focused on Lincoln’s reluctance to enforce the Confiscation Acts of 1861 and 1862. Congress had approved the appropriation of Confederate property, including enslaved people, as a war measure, but many generals were reluctant to enforce the acts, as was the Lincoln administration. Greeley argued that it was “preposterous and futile” to try to put down the rebellion without destroying slavery. The “Union cause,” he wrote, “has suffered from a mistaken deference to Rebel slavery.”


Dr. Horace Earl Smith

As a pediatric hematologist and oncologist at Children's Memorial Hospital and pastor of the Apostolic Faith Church on Chicago's South Side, Dr. Horace E. Smith has treated the bodies and souls of Chicagoans for more than two decades. Born in Chicago on December 10, 1949, Smith lost his mother at age ten and, with his grandmother's guidance, turned to the church to fill the void left by her loss.

Smith earned his B.A. degree with honors from Chicago State University in 1971, before entering the University of Illinois Medical Center. Smith completed residencies and fellowships in pediatric hematology and oncology before becoming an attending pediatrician at Rush Presbyterian Medical Center in 1980. From 1986 on, Smith served as the director of the Comprehensive Sickle Cell/Thalassemia Program at Children's Memorial Hospital, and became recognized worldwide as a leader in his field.

In addition to his career as a pediatrician, Smith became a pastor in 1980 at the Apostolic Faith Church, which he had attended since youth. In 1983, Smith became a district elder, and in August 1997, was elevated to the status of bishop. Smith remained active through his church, assisting with its Boy Scout chapter, helping redevelop the historic Wabash YMCA, leading a $3.3 million church renovation project, and helping reshape the surrounding inner-city neighborhood.


Watch the video: Horace - Часть 1: Человек (December 2021).