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Battlefield Meals Ready to Eat

Battlefield Meals Ready to Eat

In this video clip of History's Mail Call, host R. Lee Ermey, along with Gerry Darsch - the Director of Combat Feeding Program at Ameriqual Foods - takes a look at what our soldiers eat in the field: the MRE, or Meal Ready to Eat.


The rise of the ready meal

It all started with turkey and television and is now an industry worth £2.6bn in the UK alone. It's safe to say ready meals are an essential ingredient in what the British eat.

The roots of the modern ready meal go back to 1950s America and a food company called Swansons, although others had dabbled with them previously.

Left with a huge surplus of turkey after Thanksgiving in 1953, Swansons hit upon the idea of packaging it up with all the other components of the traditional American dinner. But the stroke of genius was packing it all into the aluminium trays used to serve food by airlines. The containers acted as both baking tray to cook the frozen meal and a plate off which to eat it.

With television taking a grip across the US, the company named its new product the "TV dinner" - one theory for this being that you could eat and watch. The new meals were a staggering success, with 10 million reportedly sold in the first year.

It was a while before the ready meal took off in the UK. This is largely because domestic freezers did not become the norm until the late 1960s and early 70s, says Alan Warde, professor of sociology at the University of Manchester and author of Consumption, Food and Taste.

"When there was a universal domestic way of storing frozen food, companies saw the commercial opportunities associated with it."

But it wasn't just technology that fuelled the growth of such meals.

Family life was also changing. More women were working and everyone was putting in longer hours at the office.

Anything that could save time was popular and promoted as a good thing. It became all about convenience.

"Ready meals at the time were advertised as being useful and helpful," says Warde. "They were a relief from domestic labour, even if you had the time to cook from scratch."

The start of package holidays also meant people were becoming more adventurous when it came to food.

"When they first came out, ready meals were impossibly exotic and exciting, they were magical things," says food writer and critic Matthew Fort. "We all aspired to a Vesta curry."

From the mid-70s to the early 80s, frozen food took off.

The likes of Findus Crispy Pancakes and Birds Eye Potato Waffles were being served up in homes across the UK. New frozen desserts also became popular, such as Black Forest Gateau, Wall's Viennetta and Birds Eye's Arctic Roll.

But it wasn't only technology that firms were capitalising on, the rise in divorce rates was also considered an opportunity. More men were having to cook for themselves and ready meal producers were on hand to make it as easy for them as possible. Advertising campaigns were targeted at single men, although this sales tactic wasn't without its problems.

"The model for the proper way to eat was - and still is - a meal at home, with your family, sitting around a table," says Warde. "Eating alone was often viewed as a sign of social neglect."

Not only were connotations of loneliness attributed to ready meals, their quality also started to be questioned, with frozen meals increasingly seen as second rate.

"People woke up to the yawning chasm between the beauty of the picture on the packaging and the brown junk served on the utilitarian tray inside," says Fort.

Frozen food, once a status symbol, had lost its shine. Consumers wanted freshness - and one retailer was ready to give it to them in a move that would change the face of ready meals forever.

In 1979 Marks and Spencer launched its ready-made chicken Kiev. What made it different from everything that had gone before was that it was chilled, rather than frozen.

This met consumer demand for freshness and made people feel a step closer to the idea that they had made it themselves, says Warde. Major developments in stock control and faster distribution also helped revolutionise the market.

Chilled ready meal sales rose throughout the 80s and the arrival of microwaves in the domestic kitchen only increased them further.

By 2012, the chilled ready meal made up 57% of the UK prepared meals market, according to business analysts Mintel. The market as a whole - now dominated by supermarkets making their own meals - is valued at £2.6bn.

Chilled meals arrived in an era when healthy eating was becoming more fashionable. Again the industry responded with the likes of Findus Lean Cuisine and McCain Oven Chips which used sunflower oil, the healthy option to the deep-fried version.

Increasing awareness of healthy eating continued in the 90s, with people becoming more concerned about e-numbers, additives and nutritional issues. It prompted the emergence of premium products and ranges. People were willing to pay more for something a bit posher.

"There started to be hierarchy of products," says brand expert Jayne Rogers. "Supermarkets introduced luxury ranges. Labels and packaging also started to change, they got much fancier with high quality, seductive images."

The focus on quality continued into the 21st Century. The increasing number of people eating out also had an impact.

"It influenced what people wanted to eat at home but most of the time didn't have the culinary skills to make, ready meals were the alternative," says Warde. "The industry is extremely versatile and constantly introducing new products in response to trends."

This has helped make ready meals aspirational again, says Fort. "Ready meals have improved immeasurably in recent years. Supermarkets are sexing them up and promising a fine dining experience."

Ranges now on offer include the likes of Tesco's "restaurant collection" and a Waitrose range created by three-Michelin starred chef Heston Blumenthal.

And the recession has only helped boost sales as cash-strapped consumers have cut back on restaurant meals to stay in instead.

"The market is reaping the benefits of the double-dip recession," said Mintel in a recent report..

But the nutritional content of such food has attracted negative publicity. A study published in the British Medical Journal in December found that not even one of 100 supermarket ready meals it analysed fully complied with nutritional guidelines set by the World Health Organization. Another study by the University of Glasgow branded ready meals as "nutritionally chaotic".

Regardless, the market keeps on growing. But some people were never fans and never will be.

"When you open a ready meal up and peel off the plastic what you are left with is often neither appealing to the eye nor palate," says Fort.


Contents

Currently, the United States military several different types of food available. Some of these include:

  • A-Ration, a fresh refrigerator food that is normally prepared in dining halls or field kitchens. Examples of A- Ration include various kinds of meat and produce found locally. [3]
  • B-Ration, less perishable foods such as canned, prepackaged, or preserved foods.
  • MRE, or Meals Ready to Eat, which were first studied by the military in 1975, large-scale tested in 1978, and entered service in 1981. The 25th Infantry did a field study of the MRE in 1983, eating MRE three times a day for 34 days troops reported that the rations were acceptable, but test results showed only 60% of the calories were consumed. In 1988 changes were made to the MRE based on the 1983 results, replacing nine of the twelve entree options and increasing entree size from 5 to 8 oz. [4]
  • First Strike Ration, a fast action meal which troops can eat while on the move it is designed to be consumed during the first 72 hours of conflict. One example is the HOOAH! Bar, a dairy based energy bar enriched with calcium.

Nutrition contributes directly to human health, and health directly contributes to the effectiveness of military personnel. Lack of proper nutrition can decrease the effectiveness of vaccines and increase the possibility of disease, especially in high stress situations. Many nutrients have direct effects on the immune system. When the body is subjected to illnesses such as injuries or burns increased amounts of the amino acid Glutamine are required. Vitamins C and E are antioxidants and have been associated with increased immune response. [5] Nutrition plays an important role in the body's ability to repair itself. Throughout history there have been instances where disease caused by nutritional depletion caused more deaths than combat. During Lord Anson’s 1774 voyage around the world 636 of his 961 soldiers died while on his ships. The surgeon James Lind of the Royal Navy discovered that consuming citrus fruits prevented scurvy. [6] Historical accounts and nutrient analysis provide evidence that poor nutrition and inadequate amounts of vitamins A, C, and E may have caused the failure of the New Zealand army during the Battle of Gallipoli. These deficiencies account for numerous cases of scurvy and illnesses and could have been easily avoided by incorporating canned fruits and vegetables into soldier’s diets. [7] “ Inadequate nutrition can result in poor physical and cognitive performance (e.g. inability to carry out physical tasks, poor concentration and decreased vigilance) [21,22]. The long-term effects of both macro- and micro-nutrient imbalances include increased risk of vitamin and mineral deficiencies (potentially predisposing some individuals to an increased risk of stress fractures and rickets), obesity, hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes, osteoporosis and kidney failure”. [6]

In 1963, the Department of Defense began creating what is now known as “Meal, Ready to Eat”, commonly abbreviated as MRE. Modern food preparation combined with new packaging technology led to the ability to ration out food in a lighter and more efficient way, rather than having to carry around canned goods. Ongoing development has led to around 24 entrees and more than 150 additional food and beverage options for soldiers to choose from. Recently, MREs have been studied more extensively, and are now being developed using the Dietary Reference Intake. Created by the Institute of Medicine, it was indicated that military members typically burn around 4,200 calories a day, but tend to only consume around 2,400 calories during combat. To combat this and provide foods with better nutritional value, the military has experimented with new ration ideas, such as the First Strike Ration and the HOOAH! Bar, which are typically lighter than MRE and require less preparation, such as having to heat up foods.

Each MRE meal contains approximately 1,200 calories. They are prepared to be eaten within a twenty-one day period. Packaging requirements are strict in order to maintain health codes. For example, MREs are created to withstand parachute drops from 1,250 feet high. The packaging itself is made to survive a life shelf of three and a half years at 81 degrees Fahrenheit, nine months at 100 degrees Fahrenheit, and can even stay safe through short durations of −60 degrees Fahrenheit.

Not only are the MRE options ever-developing to best suit the needs of service members, the packaging itself is improving. Zein is being studied as a possibility to replace the current foil packages. Foil has a list of negativity it can be punctured more easily, can conduct heat, and is reflective, which could give away a soldier's position while on the battlefield.

The subject of how nutrition in the military affects service members psychologically is an ongoing research process. It is currently a small field, as few studies have been conducted. However, much research has been done on how food, or lack thereof, can affect the mental stability of an individual. This information can thus be carried over to our soldiers and intensified, to better their health. A review by the American Dietetic Association indicated that restricting the intake of food has many underlying issues. Lack of proper nutrition can increase emotional responsiveness and dysphoria, and distractibility. [8] This can be an obvious issue for soldiers, especially those on the front line. Taking this into account and finding ways to better the dietary plans of military members will not only better their physical abilities, but help keep their minds stronger.

Muslim soldiers must observe Ramadan, a four-week fasting period where the participants can only eat after sundown. This can cause problems for military personnel who are in training or in battle, depleting their body of nutrients for long periods of time while they are still required to do continuous physical and mental labor at a high level of ability. [9] However, a Hellenic Army Academy study found that Ramadan fasting does not affect overall military fitness performance, although fasting cadets were less able to handle repeated maximal exercise, possibly due to inadequate recovery between tests. [9]

United States military Edit

Throughout US military history, diet quality has not been the main issue the lack of food consumption has. The Committee on Military Nutrition Research attempted to identify factors that lead to low food intake by troops in field settings, investigating whether or not—and if so, when—the energy deficit affects soldiers’ performance, and what specific factors are involved, allowing the military to implement operational strategies to mitigate the problem. [10]

Australian military Edit

A balanced diet informed by sound nutrition knowledge is key for operational readiness and the health of military personnel. Unfortunately, research suggests that military personnel have inadequate dietary intakes. A study assessed general nutrition knowledge, diet quality and their association in Australian military personnel. [11] Two specific questions on eating patterns were also included. The first examined how often during an average week (including weekends) participants skipped breakfast, lunch and/or dinner. Response options included ‘always’, ‘often’, ‘sometimes’ or ‘never’. The second examined on average how many times per week participants ate dinner away from home – for example, from a restaurant, takeaway or frontline (military canteen). Participants were required to provide a numerical value of occasions per week. [11] This study found that military personnel had poor quality diets even with the knowledge they would expect to have from having to take care of their bodies in other to be able to reach their fitness standards. [11]

New Zealand military Edit

A study done testing the poor food quality giving to New Zealand soldiers in Gallipoli in 1915. To further understand this problem, the study analysed the foods in the military rations for 1915 using food composition data on the closest equivalents for modern foods. The nutrient analysis suggested that the military rations were below modern requirements for vitamins A, C and E potassium selenium and dietary fiber. If military planners had used modest amounts of the canned vegetables and fruit available in 1915, this would probably have eliminated four of these six deficits. [7] In summary, there is now both historical and analytic evidence that the military rations provided to these soldiers were nutritionally inadequate. These deficits are likely to have caused cases of scurvy and may have contributed to the high rates of other illnesses experienced at Gallipoli. Such problems could have been readily prevented by providing rations that included some canned fruit or vegetables. [7]

Canadian military Edit

Canada determined that poor nutrition of their military personnel may be affecting their long-term health and combat readiness. [12] Due to their findings, the military has designed and required a nutrition course for all new recruits. They have also updated their National Standardized Cycle menu and shelf stable rations to encourage healthier eating habits. [12]

British military Edit

During the First World War, the rations provided to the British Forces were often inedible and did not resemble real food. The soldiers mentioning food in many of their letters home shows some psychological distress that they may have been experiencing due to the nature of their rations. [13] They also were high in calories yet low in the essential nutrients needed to thrive. In the book the author reveals parts of soldiers diaries where they admit to stealing food from French farms and orchards. Edible food was used as a motivating source for the Soldiers when receiving care packages from loved ones. [13]


MRE History

The MRE was adopted as the Department of Defense combat ration in 1975. A large-scale production test began in 1978 with delivery in 1981. MRE I (1981) was the first date of pack.

In 1983, a field evaluation was conducted with the 25th Infantry Division for 34 days. They ate noting but MREs three times a day. Although troops rated the ration as acceptable, consumption was low – only about 60% of the calories provided were consumed.

Another test in 1986 with the same division resulted in increased consumption and acceptance.

Based on these tests, a significant number of changes were made to MREs starting with the 1988 MREs (MRE XVIII). 9 of the 12 entrees were replaced with new ones and the entree size was changed from 5oz. to 8oz. Commercial candies were added to 4 menus, hot sauce was added to 4 menus, and cold beverage bases were added to all 12 menus.

After further field testing and as a result of early feedback from Operation Desert Storm, even more changes were made starting with MRE X: commercial freeze-dried coffee replaced the old mil-spec spray-dried coffee, hot sauce was added to all 12 menus, wet pack fruit replaced dehydrated fruits, and commercial candy was included in 4 more menus (for a total of 8).

During Operation Desert Storm, MREs were eaten by troops for far longer than they were originally intended. Originally intended for 10 days or less, many troops ate them for 60+ days. As a result, three changes were quickly made to supplement the MREs and enhance their acceptability: shelf-stable bread in an MRE pouch was developed, a high-heat-stable chocolate bar was developed that wouldn’t melt in the desert heat (this had been attempted before but the bar had a waxy taste and wasn’t widely accepted), and flameless ration heaters were developed as a quick and easy method for troops to heat their entrees.

Over the next few years, more changes took place. A joint panel recommended replacing at least two menus a year to improve acceptability, various entrees were change, and various other parts (deserts, tea/coffee, etc.) were changed.

In the first quarter of 1994, three major changes were field tested: 1) commercial-like graphics were added (studies showed commercial packaging increased comsumption and acceptance), 2) MRE bags and components were made easier to open, and 3) biogradable spoons were added to make MREs more environmentally friendly (the spoons were also longer which made them easier to get to the food). These changes will probably be implemented in MRE XVII (I think they changed in 1996 instead).

In 1994, they began to study the effects of increasing the number of available menus from 12 to 18 to 24 to overcome menu monotony and to allow MREs to be used for longer periods of time.

In 1996, the menu count was increased to 16. Then in 1997, the menu count was further increased to 20. Finally, in 1998, the menu count was increased to 24, where it remains today (2003).

Since MRE XIII (1993 Date-of-Pack [DOP]), 70 new items have been approved as MRE improvements. Fourteen of the least acceptable items were replaced, and the number of menus was increased from 12 to 24. In addition, four vegetarian meals are now included.

Click here to see the summary page of what changes occurred each year in MRE development. You can also visit this site to learn more about MREs.


Civil War Cooking: What the Union Soldiers Ate

On her website ToriAvey.com, Tori Avey explores the story behind the food – why we eat what we eat, how the recipes of different cultures have evolved, and how yesterday’s recipes can inspire us in the kitchen today. Learn more about Tori and The History Kitchen.

Caption: Army of the Potomac – Union soldiers cooking dinner in camp (Library of Congress)

We grab our plates and cups, and wait for no second invitation. We each get a piece of meat and a potato, a chunk of bread and a cup of coffee with a spoonful of brown sugar in it. Milk and butter we buy, or go without. We settle down, generally in groups, and the meal is soon over… We save a piece of bread for the last, with which we wipe up everything, and then eat the dish rag. Dinner and breakfast are alike, only sometimes the meat and potatoes are cut up and cooked together, which makes a really delicious stew. Supper is the same, minus the meat and potatoes.

– Lawrence VanAlstyne, Union Soldier, 128 th New York Volunteer Infantry

The biggest culinary problem during the Civil War, for both the North and the South, was inexperience. Men of this time were accustomed to the women of the house, or female slaves, preparing the food. For a male army soldier, cooking was a completely foreign concept. Thrust into the bleak reality of war, soldiers were forced to adjust to a new way of life—and eating—on the battlefield.

In the early stages of the war, the Union soldiers of the North benefited from supervision by the United States Sanitary Commission. Commonly known as The Sanitary, it made the soldiers’ health and nutrition a top priority. Even before the start of the war, volunteers in The Sanitary were trained to find and distribute food to soldiers stationed in the field. They were expected to be knowledgeable in determining which foods were available during each season, and how to preserve food items for transportation and storage. It was the responsibility of The Sanitary to schedule and maintain a constant supply of food to soldiers at war.

Fredericksburg, VA - Cooking tent of the U.S. Sanitary Commission (Library of Congress)

While the Sanitary did their best to provide a reliable supply of food, that didn’t guarantee a tasty or healthy meal. Considering there were nearly 2 million soldiers in the Union army, the Sanitary did not focus on flavor nor variety. It was a large enough task to provide the basics and keep their soldiers from starving. When food deliveries were interrupted by weather delays or other challenges, soldiers were forced to forage the countryside to supplement their meager diets.

Again we sat down beside (the campfire) for supper. It consisted of hard pilot-bread, raw pork and coffee. The coffee you probably wouldn’t recognize in New York. Boiled in an open kettle, and about the color of a brownstone front, it was nevertheless the only warm thing we had.

– Charles Nott, Union Soldier, 16 yrs. old

At the start of the war, James M. Sanderson, a member of the Sanitary, became concerned with reports of poor food quality and preparation. Sanderson, who was also a hotel operator in New York, believed that his experience would be of value to the Union. With the help of New York Governor Edwin D. Morgan, Sanderson set out to visit soldiers in the field, in hopes of teaching them a few simple cooking techniques. He started with the camps of the 12 th New York, as they were deemed “most deficient in the proper culinary knowledge.” He reportedly saw a significant change in just three days.

Colonel Burnside's Brigade at Bull Run (Library of Congress)

On July 22, 1861, just after the Union’s loss in the First Battle of Bull Run, Sanderson approached the War Department with a proposal. He asked that a “respectable minority” in each company be expertly trained in the essential basics of cooking. For every 100-man company, the skilled cook would be appointed two privates one position would be permanent and the other would rotate among the men of the company. The skilled cook would be given the rank of “Cook Major” and receive a monthly salary of $50. It would be the Cook Major’s responsibility to ration the food, prepare it, and delegate tasks to the company cooks. Sanderson had unknowingly proposed his idea at exactly the right time. Washington was faced with the likelihood of the war lasting years, rather than months. The government was actively looking for ways to increase soldier comfort. Sanderson’s proposal reached the Military Affairs Committee of the U.S. Senate. Though they did not follow his instructions specifically, Sanderson did receive a commission—he was named Captain in the Office of the Commissary General of Subsistence from the War Department.

Around this time, Sanderson wrote the first cookbook to be distributed to the military. The book was titled: Camp Fires and Camp Cooking or Culinary Hints for the Soldier: Including Receipt for Making Bread in the “Portable Field Oven” Furnished by the Subsistence Department. Though his grammar was questionable, Sanderson did describe several techniques, such as suspending pots over a campfire, that made cooking slightly more convenient in the battlefield.

Cooking with a kettle - City Point - West Point, Virginia (Library of Congress)

Sanderson believed his efforts were so successful that “no man could consume his daily ration, although many waste(d) it.” This certainly was not the case, as many men still suffered from hunger, illness and death from unsanitary and poorly cooked food. Sanderson did understand the importance of cooking with well-cleaned pots and was quoted as saying, “Better wear out your pans with scouring than your stomachs with purging.”

Typical fare during the Civil War was very basic. Union soldiers were fed pork or beef, usually salted and boiled to extend the shelf life, coffee, sugar, salt, vinegar, and sometimes dried fruits and vegetables if they were in season. Hard tack, a type of biscuit made from unleavened flour and water, was commonly used to stave off hunger on both sides. After baking, hard tack was dried to increase its shelf life.

Dinner party outside tent, Army of the Potomac headquarters, Brandy Station, VA (Library of Congress)

Soldiers in the field would carry rations in makeshift bags called haversacks. Made of canvas, the haversack folded around its contents, basically anything the soldiers would need to survive for a few days on their own, and was held together with buckling straps and completed with two shoulder straps.

An army is a big thing and it takes a great many eatables and not a few drinkables to carry it along.

– Union Officer, October 1863

The following Union army recipe comes from Camp Fires and Camp Cooking or Culinary Hints for the Soldier by Captain Sanderson. It’s a basic recipe (in those days known as a “receipt”) for “Commissary Beef Stew.” This easy meat stew is thickened with flour and filled out with potatoes and vegetables. The flour and added vegetables allowed Union cooks to stretch small amounts of meat into a substantial, filling meal. While many wartime stews were made from salted preserved meat, this recipe appears to be written for fresh beef. Here is the original recipe, as transcribed in A Taste for War: The Culinary History of the Blue and Gray. Note that grammar and measurements have been clarified from the original source:

Cut 2 pounds of beef roast into cubes 2 inches square and 1 inch thick, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and put in frying pan with a little pork fat or lard. Put them over a fire until well browned but not fully cooked, and hen empty the pan into a kettle and add enough water to cover the meat. Add a handful of flour, two quartered onions, and four peeled and quartered potatoes. Cover and simmer slowly over a moderate heat for 3 ½ hours, skimming any fat that rises to the top. Then stir in 1 tablespoon of vinegar and serve. Other vegetables available, such as leeks, turnips, carrots, parsnips, and salsify, will make excellent additions.

I have adapted Captain Sanderson’s recipe for the modern kitchen my updated version of the dish appears below. While the stew is simple, it stands the test of time. The long and slow cooking produces exceptionally tender meat chunks. As you cook it, imagine stirring a kettle over an open flame in a Civil War army camp. Hungry soldiers would have looked forward to a hearty stew like this.


Meals ready to eat: a brief history and clinical vignette with discussion on civilian applications

Meals ready to eat (MRE) have undergone many revisions of their origins in the trench ration from World War I. The MRE was implemented in 1980. Its design allows extended storage and easy, safe meal preparation. MRE sodium content varies by meal and may range from 1.6 g/meal to 2.3 g/meal. The average MRE contains 1,200 kcal. When consumed as intended, MREs are adequate for maintaining a soldier's physical parameters without undesirable consequences. The average soldier has a healthy cardiovascular system, has the ability to excrete high sodium loads, and has high insensible losses. The American Heart Association recommends limiting sodium to 2.3 g/day for the general population. Additionally, those with heart failure should limit sodium to 2 g/day. Excess intake of calories and electrolytes may lead to adverse outcomes in certain populations. We describe a case of heart failure exacerbated by regular MRE consumption and the "perfect storm" of risk factors encountered with postdisaster distribution of MREs to a civilian population.


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In: Military medicine , Vol. 175, No. 3, 01.01.2010, p. 194-196.

Research output : Contribution to journal › Article › peer-review

T2 - A brief history and clinical vignette with discussion on civilian applications

N2 - Meals ready to eat (MRK) have undergone many revisions of their origins in the trench ration from World War I. The MRK was implemented in 1980. Its design allows extended storage and easy, safe meal preparation. MRE sodium content varies by meal and may range from 1.6 g/meal to 2.3 g/meal. The average MRE contains 1,200 keal. When consumed as intended. MREs are adequate for maintaining a soldier's physical parameters without undesirable consequences. The average soldier has a healthy cardiovascular system, has the ability to excrete high sodium loads, and has high insensible losses. The American Heart Association recommends limiting sodium to 2.3 g/day for the general population. Additionally, those with heart failure should limit sodium to 2 g/day. Excess intake of calories and electrolytes may lead to adverse outcomes in certain populations. We describe a case of heart failure exacerbated by regular MRE consumption and the "perfect storm" of risk factors encountered with postdisaster distribution of MREs to a civilian population.

AB - Meals ready to eat (MRK) have undergone many revisions of their origins in the trench ration from World War I. The MRK was implemented in 1980. Its design allows extended storage and easy, safe meal preparation. MRE sodium content varies by meal and may range from 1.6 g/meal to 2.3 g/meal. The average MRE contains 1,200 keal. When consumed as intended. MREs are adequate for maintaining a soldier's physical parameters without undesirable consequences. The average soldier has a healthy cardiovascular system, has the ability to excrete high sodium loads, and has high insensible losses. The American Heart Association recommends limiting sodium to 2.3 g/day for the general population. Additionally, those with heart failure should limit sodium to 2 g/day. Excess intake of calories and electrolytes may lead to adverse outcomes in certain populations. We describe a case of heart failure exacerbated by regular MRE consumption and the "perfect storm" of risk factors encountered with postdisaster distribution of MREs to a civilian population.


Lizard Tails

You get Lizard Tails by catching lizards that's out in the world. There is no "designated" place to farm lizards, but they can be found anywhere by destroying bushes. There are plenty of bushes in Starfell Lake area, near the Statue of the Seven - Anemo. Mondstadt also has a lot of bushes too close to the Knights of Favonius' Headquarters.

If some a lizard spawned but you did not manage to catch it before it disappears, you can teleport to a faraway place then teleport to where the lizard was to try and catch it again.


How The Military Has Influenced Cuisine All Over The World

British curry, the banh mi sandwich in Vietnam, spam and condensed milk. All of the above are food staples that wouldn’t have been possible without the unique influence of war and the military.

“All war is about food, ultimately,” food writer Clifford Wright, who specializes in the history of Mediterranean cuisine, says.

War, as a means of territorial control, means an imposition of cuisine. As empires encroach on foreign lands, they bring with them the vocabulary and foods of their home. Spain would not be without its iconic paella if it were not for the conquering Moors, who introduced rice and saffron to the region. In Taiwan, which was colonized by the Japanese for half a century, certain food items from Japan have become a staple, like the bento and different types of sushi.

In a globalized world, we owe our diversity of foods from these colonial and military patterns. Military — for better or for worse — is a culture that affects the countries that it is present in, often long after it leaves.

“The military’s prime goal is to conquer. You bring the food with you or you take the food you discover,” Wright says.

While colonization and military occupation of lands has given birth to a diversity of food ingredients, there’s a stark difference between colonial cuisine and soldier food, the latter of which is created out of urgency and as a means of survival.

Here’s a breakdown of both:

Transportable food has always been a necessity during times of war — from pemmican, dried meat carried by Native Americans warriors on their voyages, to matzo, the staple of the Israelites during their exodus from Egypt.

“One of the most ancient foods from military aggression is the matzo. It was eaten on the run and then later a version of that was hardtack, a long-lasting hard bread with salt. That kind of food represents hardship food, but it represents salvation,” Merry White, a professor of anthropology at Boston University, says.

As time goes by, certain technologies have accentuated the preservation of wartime food provisions.

“Every culture has methods of preservation,” White says. “Jerky comes out of that situation where you have to carry food in a long way.”

Condensed milk, for one, was developed during the civil war to feed troops. By using a vacuum evaporator to kill the bacteria in fresh milk, it was a fool-proof way to ensure a lack of contamination. During the Second World War, high pressure processing was created, which in 1937, led to the birth of spam.

“It kills bacteria. You have safety from pressure, not from drying and refrigeration,” White says.

These foods were designed to be eaten on the run and over the years, slowly made its way into certain subcultures.

For example, after World War II, there were a significant number of soldiers stationed on Hawaii. To feed them, the government ended up sending so many boxfuls of spam that it eventually made its way into the local culture.

Today, spam is a national icon of the islands — where seven million cans of it are consumed each year.

Coca-Cola is another example of a food item that has been dispersed globally as a direct result of the military. In 1941 during the heels of World War II, then Coca-Cola president Robert Woodruff ordered that “every man in uniform gets a bottle of Coca-Cola for five cents, wherever he is and whatever it costs the company.” This helped the company establish their influence throughout Europe and when peace came, the number of countries with bottling operations doubled.

There has also been the trade of MREs (Meals, Ready to Eat) – dehydrated foods developed by militaries in the 1960s to quickly feed their soldiers. According to Slate, MREs from France had so much culinary stature compared to that of other countries, that five American meals were considered a fair trade for just one.

These type of meals have now made their way into civilian culture. According to a Reuters report, Amazon recently announced that they will be rolling out MRE-inspired meals that don’t require refrigeration by 2018.