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Capella AK-13 - History

Capella AK-13 - History


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Capella

A first magnitude star in the constellation Auriga.
(AK-13: dp. 4,037; 1. 401'; b. 54'1"; dr. 24'5"; s. 11 k.;
cpl. 271; a. 2 5", 4 3")

Capella (AK-13) was built in 1920 as Comerant by American International Shipbuilding Corp., Hog Island, Pa., under a Shipping Board contract, acquired by the Navy 20 November 1921- and commissioned 8 December 1921, Lieutenant Commander S. W. Hickey, USNRF, in command.

Capella arrived at San Diego, Calif., 19 March 1922 to carry cargo along the west coast until July, when she returned to the east coast for similar duty in the next 4 months. Back in California waters in November Capella sailed to Japan in October 1923 to bring food and medical supplies, donated by American citizens, as well as water for the relief of earthquake-desolated Yokohama.

The cargo ship resumed west coast operations until February 1924 when she returned to Norfolk, VA. Capella was decommissioned and placed in reserve there 1 September 1924. She was recommissioned 10 November 1938, and resumed supply runs along the east and west coast in alternate periods, on occasion penetrating Alaskan waters.

As war threatened and the United States began the buildup of Western Hemisphere bases acquired from the British, Capella was recalled to the east coast late in September 1940. The veteran cargo ship furrowed east coast waters, supporting bases from the Canal Zone to Newfoundland with cargoes brought from Atlantic ports until 1944. In June she cleared on the first of four transatlantic convoy crossings to Scotland, and North and West Africa, all so safely guarded as to be made without incident. Capella returned to Caribbean cargo duty in June 1945, and on 30 November 1946 was decommissioned at Norfolk, VA. She was transferred to the War Shipping Administration in July 1946.


USS Capella (AK-13)

USS Capella (AK-13) was a cargo ship in the United States Navy during World War II. She was named for the star.

Capella was built in 1920 as Comerant by American International Shipbuilding Corporation, Hog Island, Pennsylvania, under a Shipping Board contract acquired by the Navy 20 November 1921 and commissioned 8 December 1921, Lieutenant Commander S. W. Hickey, USNRF, in command.

Capella arrived at San Diego, California, 19 March 1922 to carry cargo along the west coast until July, when she returned to the east coast for similar duty in the next 4 months. Back in California waters in November, Capella sailed to Japan in October 1923 to bring food and medical supplies, donated by American citizens, as well as water for the relief of earthquake-desolated Yokohama.

The cargo ship resumed west coast operations until February 1924 when she returned to Norfolk, Virginia. Capella was decommissioned and placed in reserve there 1 September 1924. She was recommissioned 10 November 1938, and resumed supply runs along the east and west coast in alternate periods, on occasion penetrating Alaskan waters.

As war threatened and the United States began the buildup of Western Hemisphere bases acquired from the British, Capella was recalled to the east coast late in September 1940. The veteran cargo ship furrowed east coast waters, supporting bases from the Panama Canal Zone to Newfoundland with cargoes brought from Atlantic ports until 1944. In June she cleared on the first of four transatlantic convoy crossings to Scotland, and North and West Africa, all so safely guarded as to be made without incident.

In 9 April 1942, Capella was hit by a friendly torpedo fired from PT-59, causing eight injuries, but no deaths. Capella returned to Caribbean cargo duty in June 1945, and on 30 November 1945 was decommissioned at Norfolk, Virginia. She was transferred to the War Shipping Administration in July 1946.


USS Capella (AK-13)

The cargo ship USS Capella was built as the SS Cormorant in 1920 and acquired by the US Navy in 1921 and renamed USS Capella. She carried cargo along the east coast and west coast for a few years, making one trip to Japan with earthquake relief supplies in 1923. She was then decommissioned in 1924.

She was recommissioned in 1938 and this Eugene Mueller hand drawn cover marks the recommissioning on November 10. Although note as artistic as Gow Ng hand drawn covers of the same period, Mueller covers are never the less usually colorful and are indeed hand drawn works of art.

Capella then continued carrying cargo along the east and west coasts.

During World War II she served in the Atlantic, supporting bases from Panama to Newfoundland. In 1944 she made trans Atlantic trips to Scotland and North Africa. She ended the war carrying cargo in the Mediterranean in 1945. She was decommissioned in November 1945.


Pre-WWII and WWII service [ edit ]

During July and August 1940 Capella assisted in the tow of the Navy's 10,700 ton New Orleans floating drydock from Balboa, Panama Canal Zone to Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. Capella and USS Navajo  (AT-64) conducted an in-line, tandem tow with logistics support from USS Platte  (AO-24) . The duration of the operation was 44 days and covered 4,771 nautical miles at an average speed of 4.5 knots. ΐ]

As war threatened and the United States began the buildup of Western Hemisphere bases acquired from the British, Capella was recalled to the east coast late in September 1940. The veteran cargo ship supported bases from the Panama Canal Zone to Newfoundland with cargoes brought from Atlantic ports until 1944. In June she cleared on the first of four transatlantic convoy crossings to Scotland, and North and West Africa, all so safely guarded as to be made without incident.

On 9 April 1942, Capella was hit by a friendly torpedo fired from PT-59, causing eight injuries, but no deaths.


Capella AK-13 - History

From: Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships

A first magnitude star in the constellation Auriga. AK - 13: dp. 4,037 l. 401' b. 54'1"

dr. 24'5" s. 11 k. cpl. 271 a. 2 x 5", 4 x 3"

Capella (AK-13) was built in 1920 as Comerant by American International Shipbuilding Corp., Hog Island, Pa., under a Shipping Board contract acquired by the Navy 20 November 1921 and commissioned 8 December 1921, Lieutenant Commander S. W. Hickey, USNRF, in command.

Capella arrived at San Diego, Calif., 19 March 1922 to carry cargo along the west coast until July, when she returned to the east coast for similar duty in the next 4 months. Back in California waters in November, Capella sailed to Japan in October 1923 to bring food and medical supplies, donated by American citizens, as well as water for the relief of earthquake-desolated Yokohama.

The cargo ship resumed west coast operations until February 1924 when she returned to Norfolk, Va. Capella was decommissioned and placed in reserve there 1 September 1924. She was recommissioned 10 November 1938, and resumed supply runs along the east and west coast in alternate periods, on occasion penetrating Alaskan waters.

As war threatened and the United States began the buildup of Western Hemisphere bases acquired from the British, Capella was recalled to the east coast late in September 1940. The veteran cargo ship furrowed east coast waters, supporting bases from the Canal Zone to Newfoundland with cargoes brought from Atlantic ports until 1944. In June she cleared on the first of four transatlantic convoy crossings to Scotland, and North and West Africa, all so safely guarded as to be made without incident. Capella returned to Caribbean cargo duty in June 1945, and on 30 November 1945 was decommissioned at Norfolk, Va. She was transferred to the War Shipping Administration in July 1946.


16"/50 (40.6 cm) Mark 2 and Mark 3

The prototype for this gun was proved on 8 April 1918 and production started soon afterwards, but these guns were destined never to be used on a warship. They were originally intended for the Lexington (CC-1) class battlecruisers and for the South Dakota (BB-49) class battleships, all of which were cancelled in 1922 as a result of the Washington Naval Limitation Treaty. In the late 1930s, it was planned to use these weapons to arm the Iowa class (BB-61) battleships but, through a comedy of errors, the ship barbette design and the mounting design were incompatible with each other. This forced BuOrd into a new gun design and development for the Iowa class battleships, which fortunately resulted in the excellent 16"/50 (40.6 cm) Mark 7.

As a result of these ship cancellations and redesigns, most of these Mark 2 and Mark 3 guns wound up being used by the US Army as Coast Defense Artillery. Twenty guns were transferred between 1922 and 1924 and all but three of the remaining guns were transferred in January 1941 following the Iowa fiasco. The Army considered these guns to be excellent weapons in that role and used them along with their own 16"/50 (40.6 cm) M1919. By August 1945 there were forty of these ex-naval guns in active coast defense batteries.

The Mark 2 was constructed of a liner, A tube, jacket, seven hoops, four hoop-locking rings and a screw box liner. Mod 0 had increasing twist while Mod 1 had uniform twist with a different groove pattern. The Mark 3 was very similar to the Mark 2, the only difference being that the Mark 3 had a one-step conical liner. Mark 3 Mod 0 had increasing twist while Mod 1 had uniform twist. When cancelled in 1922, 71 guns including the prototype had been completed and another 44 were in progress.

At least five of these guns still exist at this time (2019):

16"/50 (40.6 cm) Mark 2 No. 96 at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren, Virginia
16"/50 (40.6 cm) Mark 2 No. 100 at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren, Virginia
16"/50 (40.6 cm) Mark 2 No. 111 at the U.S. Navy Museum, Washington Navy Yard, Washington, DC
16"/50 (40.6 cm) Mark 2 Mod 1, No. 114 on the Island of Barbados
16”/50 (40.6 cm) Mark 3 Mod 1, No. 138 at the Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

The Mark 2 Mod 1 No. 114 gun was used as part of the High Altitude Research Project (HARP) of the 1960s and was left in place. Two other 16" (40.6 cm) gun barrels were welded together to create an extra long gun which now lies abandoned on Barbados. See photographs below.

A Note on Sources: It is stated in some of the references listed below that no Mark 3 guns were ever completed. This is incorrect, as there were at least two Mark 3 guns completed: The 16"/50 (40.6 cm) Mark 3 Mod 1 gun on display at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds Museum in Maryland and the Mark 3 Mod 1 No. 131 gun that was later modified as a prototype for the Mark 7 and was then redesignated as the Mark D Mod 0. This error is apparently due to notes in the BuOrd publication OP 127 "United States Naval Guns: Their Marks and Modifications" of 1942 which states "No Guns" for both the Mark 3 and the Mark 3 Mod 1. I believe that these BuOrd notes actually mean "no guns in active naval service" as they had all been transferred to the Army as described above or were being used for testing purposes.

US Army 16"/50 (40.6 cm) M1919

The US Army's 16"/50 (40.6 cm) M1919 coastal defense gun was an almost completely different design and was one of the few wire wound guns ever built in the USA. It weighed nearly 24 tons (25 mt) more than the Mark 2 and was about 0.5 calibers longer. A total of eight of these guns were built with six being used in three two-gun coastal defense batteries, the first of which was installed during 1923-1924 at Battery Williston, on the west side of the entrance to Pearl Harbor, "where they had a field of fire that completely encircled the island of Oahu [Hawaii] and reached beyond its shores at every point" - from "Seacoast Fortifications of the United States." The other two batteries were installed at Long Island, New York and at Boston, Massachusetts. All other 16" (40.6 cm) coastal batteries used the former naval guns.


The History of A Cappella Music

The origin and creation of a cappella music is impossible to pin down. After all, cavemen humming to themselves were singing a cappella. What matters most, like languages, is when the music was written on paper (or stone). One of the earliest examples of sheet music was discovered on a cuneiform tablet dating back to 2000 B.C. From what scholars can tell, it describes a piece of music written in a diatonic scale. Just recently, one of the earliest known scores for polyphonic music (music written with more than one vocal or instrumental part), written around the year 900 A.D., was discovered and performed at St John’s College, University of Cambridge.

The use of a cappella music gained popularity, especially in western music, largely in part to religious institutions. Christian churches predominantly performed Gregorian chant throughout the medieval period and well into the renaissance period. Composers like Josquin des Prez (1450-1521) and Orlando di Lasso (1530-1594) expanded beyond chant and composed polyphonic a cappella music. As more composers and artists flocked to Rome (the capital of cultural enlightenment), secular music called madrigals appeared. Madrigals, the equivalent of today’s pop music, were unaccompanied songs sung by two to eight singers. One of the most prolific and perfecters of the madrigal was composer Claudio Monteverdi, one of the top 8 renaissance composers. His madrigals show an evolving compositional style — a bridge connecting the renaissance period to the baroque period. The madrigals composed later in his career became “concerted,” meaning he wrote them with instrumental accompaniments. As time progressed, more and more composers followed suit, and a cappella’s popularity diminished.


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Sophia courses must be completed prior to enrolling in Capella's FlexPath offerings. Sophia may be taken concurrently with Capella's GuidedPath offerings.

Membership in Sophia Learning is available as soon as you've accepted admission in a Capella University undergraduate degree program, and as long as you are an active student, to help you complete your degree quickly and affordably.

  • Work on your gen eds &mdash Sophia's self-paced online courses let you complete general education courses on your schedule, then apply them toward your undergraduate degree program.
  • Transfer your credits to Capella University &mdash Once you complete a course, your transcript will be automatically sent to Capella University on your behalf. (A $100 fee per course will be charged to release information to other institutions.)

Talk to your academic coach to identify Sophia courses that may apply to your degree program.


Personality [ edit | edit source ]

Capella is considered to be the worst personality-wise among the Sin Archbishops. She speaks in a way that sounds like she spits and tramples upon courtesy while having a cruel personality. She claims that all the love and respect in the world exists to be monopolized by her. Even among the Sin Archbishops famed for their vulgar personalities and irredeemable actions, Capella is considered a special brand of evil. Lust views people other than herself as mere bags of meat meant to operate as she deems fit. As she sees those around her as little more than animals, Capella cares not for the opinions and feelings of others nor whether or not her actions caused pain and suffering. She also revels in the pain of others, often cackling while bringing torment to other people.

Changing her and others' appearances so that everyone would come to love her, making her a monster that plays with the dignity and values of people, all the while spitting her brand of ridicule. As other Witch Cult, she is shown to not think highly of her fellow Sin Archbishops, referring to them with degrading nicknames when not using their names.

Befitting her title as the bearer of the Lust Witch Factor, Capella is obsessed with the concept of love, feeling a great urge for every single person in the world to love her. Although, like everything about the Archbishop, Capella's idea of love is severely warped. She presents excessive pride in regards to herself, often citing herself as a kind woman whose beauty compared to none.

As Mother of the Assassin Organization, Capella spends her days gathering brilliant and extraordinarily eccentric individuals who she refers to as her children–her underlings who she uses for her own benefits and goals. According to both Elsa and Meili, Mother is extremely cruel and unforgivable as even the slightest mistake might result in harsh punishments, such as being temporarily morphed into countless frogs, be slaughtered or simply turned into a shapeless pile of meat for all eternity. According to Capella, her children are individuals who will devote their bodies and souls to her and make her wishes come true and bring her gifts beyond her wildest dreams, no matter the cost. By doing so, they will express their unbounded love for Capella–something she cherishes more than anything else in the world.


Capella AK-13 - History

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