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Family Tree of Arsinoe II

Family Tree of Arsinoe II

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Imagination of a Monarchy: Studies in Ptolemaic Propaganda (Phoenix Supplementary Volume, 37)

R.A. Hazzard is an expert on Ptolemaic numismatics and has written numerous contributions to Ptolemaic studies in the past years. Naturally he draws heavily on coinage throughout his book that is under review here. Its main theme concerns the gradual transformation of royal power in the Ptolemaic dynasty by which the queens reached a stronger position towards their male associates during the second and first centuries BC. The author intends to prove the origins for this development in the propaganda of Ptolemy II, which had the aim of glorifying the king’s sister Arsinoe II and also to introduce a more civilian style of kingship. The aim for Ptolemy’s propaganda was to influence his subjects, friends at court, and allies in Greece and Asia Minor. As a consequence of, the Ptolemaic queens obtained an increasingly powerful role. So by the middle of the second century, the queen had equal power with the king (as was the case with Kleopatra II and her brother Ptolemy VIII), and some of the later queens gained dominance or absolute power over their fellow rulers. With each of the six main chapters of “Imagination of a Monarchy” Hazzard intends to support his general thesis.

The first chapter (“When did Ptolemy II Style his Father as Ptolemaios Soter?”) proposes that the second Ptolemy started calling his late father Ptolemaios Soter in his 23rd year (263/62 BC). Hazzard compiles and discusses the documentary evidence. A key element for his thesis is derived from the dating of the famous procession of Ptolemy II. It is described by Kallixeinos of Rhodes (FGrH 627 F 2) and in Athenaeus. Hazzard and M.P.V. FitzGerald have dated it to the year 262. This conclusion is based on astronomical data and, according to the author, has remained unchallenged so far. 1 The chapter concludes with two tables. The first (p. 18 f.) shows the development of the Soter-name in the (mostly Coile-Syrian) coinage under Ptolemy II the second (p. 20-24) lists the change in the royal protocols in inscriptions and papyri (including the equivalents in Phoenician and demotic Egyptian). Its noteworthy that the term “Ptolemaios, (son) of Ptolemaios Soteros” seems evident only after the year 259 BC.

In the following chapter (p. 25-46) Hazzard presents the evidence for a “Soter Era”, which according to him is either ignored or not believed by scholars of Ptolemaic Egypt. This era is supposed to have started by 262 BC. To support this the author infers his first point of reference from the Marmor Parium (FGrH 2B, 239) and goes on to glean the numismatic and literary sources (basically Kallixeinos) for further support. He also draws on astronomical references found in the sources to argue that the king intended to fix the four-year cycle of the Ptolemaia festival (which originated in 282) to the winter from 262 onwards. Since the Macedonian calendar had a year with 354 days, he added a thirteenth month of 30 days every two years to accommodate his aims (p. 33-36). In a subchapter the political motives of Ptolemy II are analyzed. Here the scholarly view derived from the ancient authors (patron of the arts and benefactor to those in his service) is contrasted with that of the documentary evidence (industrious ruler who is gathering facts, giving orders and making inspections). It is also pointed out that the king was not very popular as a result of his heavy taxation, his murder of family members and his incestuous marriage to his sister Arsinoe II during the first two decades of his reign. So by introducing the Soter era, thus celebrating his divine parents, he intended to draw a line and “saying in effect ‘all the murders, scandals, and disappointments of the past are now behind us. This is the beginning of a new age” (p. 44).

A small chapter (p. 47-58) is devoted to the Nikouria decree (SIG 1.390 = IG XII.7). Hazzard gives a detailed discussion of the content of this stele found on the small island of Nikouria in 1893 and the subsequent debate regarding its date. This inscription contains the reply by Ptolemy II to a previous appeal that the Island League send delegates to Samos to discuss its participation in games and sacrifices honoring his father. While most earlier scholars have dated this decree around the year 280 BC., Hazzard postulates the year 263 and investigates the role of the Ptolemaia festival during the Chremonidean war (267-262 BC).

The Grand Procession as described by Kallixeinos is the subject of the fourth chapter (p. 59-79). After a brief introduction to the subject, Kallixeinos as source is being investigated. In the past the exact date of Ptolemy’s celebration has been debated and was usual set between 285/84 and 275/74 BC., but Hazzard suggests the year 262. In the sub-paragraph “The Pageant as Propaganda” (p. 66-75) he looks at several elements in the parade which seem to indicate that Ptolemy II introduced the Soter era in Alexandria. A further aim of this procession was “to justify and popularize” a more civilian style of monarchy, and this apparently succeeded.

Some of the most important innovations of the second Ptolemy concerns his incestuous marriage with his full-sister Arsinoe II and its subsequent impact of the dynastic cult. This pattern of marriage was followed by most of Ptolemy’s successors. Chapter 5 “Arsinoe II and the Importance of Perception” (p. 82-100) deals with this issue. Arsinoe had married her brother before 274 and had died in the year 268 (the conventional date is 270). During the years of her brief reign as co-regent of the Ptolemaic empire, she had exercised an influential though not uncontroversial role. Soon after her death she was made into a goddess. While the marriage to her brother found some backing in Greek mythology (the legend of Zeus wedding Hera), it found little sympathy among the Greek population of the empire and even aroused opposition, the native Egyptians had naturally less problem with that. After a detailed summary of the incestuous marriage (p. 90-93), Arsinoe’s role at court (p. 93-96) and the scholarly discussion on her real influence (p. 96-99) is evaluated. Even though the question how far the Queen exercised a dominant role over her sibling during her lifetime continues to be debated, Hazzard argues against a domineering impact and suggests that at least two points can be agreed upon: the ‘perception’ of Arsinoe’s powers was common to those outside the court during the reign of Ptolemy II, and this ‘perception’ was influential in shaping the role of the Ptolemaic queens during the following two centuries.

The concluding main chapter “Monarchy as Imagination: Propaganda and the Role of the Ptolemaic Queen” (p. 101-159) covers the gradual rise of the female co-rulers over time. Here each reigning constellation is discussed in chronological order down to Kleopatra VII and her sons. Hazzard starts this chapter with a family tree of the dynasty. 2 One guiding principle emerges from the history of the Ptolemies: the piety towards their ancestors. Here Arsinoe II stands out as a precedent that was evoked in later times after Kleopatra I when the queens gained more power.

Four appendices are added: The first explores the date and purpose of the Marmor Parium (p. 161-167) Appendix 2 deals with Ptolemaic officials in the Nikouria decree (p. 168-175) Appendix 3 (p. 176-179) takes a look at an inscription dedicated to Ptolemy IV Philopator found in Jaffa 1961 (cf. SEG XX, 467). For this last Hazzard offers a new reading and challenges the original restoration by Lifchitz, who saw it as evidence for the introduction of a cult to Ptolemy II after the battle of Raphia in 217. The fourth Appendix (p. 180-188) provides a Ptolemaic chronology until the year 105 BC, in which new dates and submissions are marked with an asterisk. The book closes with a bibliography and several very practical indices sorted by ancient authors, inscriptions, Greek papyri and ostraka, demotic papyri and ostraka, and person and subjects.

Hazzard’s main thesis concerns the re-dating of several events and sources from the time of Ptolemy II: 1. The styling of Ptolemy I as Ptolemaios Soter after 263/62, 2. the introduction of Soter Era in 262, 3. the dating of the Nikouria Decree to the year 263, 4. the fixing of the Ptolemaia to the winter and the grand Pompe in 262. These are indeed challenging conclusions, which the author presents very convincingly while citing numerous sources. Its remains to be seen how far his theses will be accepted, as they surely will be debated. This book, however, is not the ultimate work on Ptolemaic propaganda and self-representation. The ruler cult is not wholly covered after Arsinoe II and the Egyptian (i.e. Pharaonic) elements of Ptolemaic ideology are mentioned only in passing. This notwithstanding Hazzard’s contribution is one the most important books on Ptolemaic studies in recent years, which no one can ignore who is writing on Ptolemy II.

1. Cf. R.A. Hazzard/M.P.V. FitzGerald, The Regulation of the Ptolemaia: A Hypothesis Explored, Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada 85 (1991) 6-23. Only Huß, Aegypten in hellenistischer Zeit, München (Beck) 2001 (cf. p. 320-323) has reacted so far, but he does not follow Hazzard.

2. Hazzard follows the older convention of regarding a supposed son of Ptolemy VI, Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator, as sovereign ruler briefly after his father’s death in 145 (cf. especially p. 129 n. 143 for an older interpretation of coin issues cited in support for this king). A ruler by that name is no longer accepted the epiclese Neos Philopator was posthumously used in the ruler-cult after 118 BC, probably for a son of Ptolemy VIII.

Census records can tell you a lot of little known facts about your Arsinoe ancestors, such as occupation. Occupation can tell you about your ancestor's social and economic status.

There are 3,000 census records available for the last name Arsinoe. Like a window into their day-to-day life, Arsinoe census records can tell you where and how your ancestors worked, their level of education, veteran status, and more.

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There are 1,000 military records available for the last name Arsinoe. For the veterans among your Arsinoe ancestors, military collections provide insights into where and when they served, and even physical descriptions.

There are 3,000 census records available for the last name Arsinoe. Like a window into their day-to-day life, Arsinoe census records can tell you where and how your ancestors worked, their level of education, veteran status, and more.

There are 642 immigration records available for the last name Arsinoe. Passenger lists are your ticket to knowing when your ancestors arrived in the USA, and how they made the journey - from the ship name to ports of arrival and departure.

There are 1,000 military records available for the last name Arsinoe. For the veterans among your Arsinoe ancestors, military collections provide insights into where and when they served, and even physical descriptions.

Arsinoë II, Ptolemaic Queen

The Ptolemies were a Greek dynasty that ruled Egypt during the Hellenistic period. And in a lot of ways Arsinoë II really set the standard for the generations of Ptolemaic queens that followed her.
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Welcome to Stuff You Missed in History Class A production of I Heart Radio. Hello and welcome to the podcast, I'm Tracy Wilson, and I'm Holly Fry. Remember our recent episode on Zoey and Theodora? We talked about how I have some challenging research moments thanks to there being so many people in the Macedonian dynasty who had the same name. I do remember.

Yeah, today's episode is worse from that perspective. We are talking about Ptolemaic. Queen Arsinoe the second at the Ptolemy's were a Greek dynasty that ruled Egypt during the Hellenistic period. And most of that dynasties men were named Ptolemy. For the most part, the women were named Arseneau, a baronetcy or Cleopatra. Sometimes people say baronetcy, Berniece, but I understand why they would land there. But that's not it. Sometimes the women were also called Ptolemy's, which was a feminine form of Ptolemy.

So that's basically you got four or five names to work from for the most part. And then the dynasties family tree is also pretty convoluted. Arseneau ways husbands included her half brother, Ptolemy Carrados, and her full brother Ptolemy. The second, of course, are going to be talking more about that. Of course, these repetitive names and the challenges that they create are not why I chose Arseneau for this episode. The Hellenistic period stretched from the death of Alexander the Great to the establishment of the Roman Empire.

And it's just it's not really a period. We have talked about that often on the show and in a lot of ways, Arsinoe way. The second really set the standard for the generations of Ptolemaic Queens that followed her. Also, just as a heads up, as was the case with Zoe and Theodora, there's a lot of killing in this episode, including the murders of children. Arseneau, whose father was Ptolemy, the first Soder meaning savior. He had been a companion and advisor to Alexander, the third of Macedon, later becoming one of Alexander's bodyguards and eventually one of his generals.

Alexander was, of course, also known as Alexander the Great. That empire was huge. It stretched from Greece and Egypt in the west to the Indus River and the Himalayan mountains in the east. Alexander's empire did not survive his death in 323 B.C., though. When Alexander died, his wife Roxann was pregnant, but she had not given birth yet. And he also had a disabled half brother who was still living. But beyond that, Alexander had no direct successor.

He did not name anyone to follow him either. He just said that the empire should go to the strongest or the fittest, depending on the translation that you're reading.

Some of Alexander's generals and advisors wanted to wait for Roxann to give birth to see if she would have a son, and she did. But soon they were dividing up the empire among themselves, becoming satraps or governors of various territories, although some of these satraps were at least ostensibly holding territory on behalf of Alexander surviving. Kim, his half brother, was murdered in 317 B.C. and his son with Roxann was murdered in 309 by 386. These dyadic or successors were consolidating territory and presenting themselves as kings instead of generals or provincial governors.

I just want to say I have heard at least four different pronunciations of this, of the successors from from different people who should know what they are talking about. I've heard Dyadic Diatta, Kai, that a coin, which is more like how it was pronounced in Greek, it's really all over the place. For Ptolemy's part, after Alexander's death, he became the satrap of Egypt and then he expanded his territory from there through marriages and through military conquest, including wars against some of the other Dyadic I.

And really this whole period was incredibly chaotic. It was full of all kinds of disagreements and infighting and a series of wars that stretched from three twenty two to two eighty one B.C. Some of those will come up again later. Ultimately, Ptolemy became king of Egypt in Macedonia and founded the Ptolemaic dynasty, which controlled Egypt for nearly three hundred years. His public works projects included the library at Alexandria and the Lighthouse of Alexandria, which is described as one of the seven wonders of the ancient world.

Ptolemy also stole Alexander's body as it was being taken back to Macedonia to be buried. He took it to the Egyptian city of Memphis and then eventually to Alexandria, where he had it in Tombs. This tomb became a focal point for the cult of Alexander, which Ptolemy made into a state cult and. Alamy used the cult, the worship in the cult, the presence of Alexander's remains in Alexandria, all of that together to reinforce the idea that he and his dynasty were the legitimate rulers of Egypt.

But neither Ptolemy nor the rest of his dynasty ever assimilated with the Egyptian population that they were ruling. Although Ptolemy initially lived in Memphis, which was one of Egypt's oldest cities. He ultimately moved to Alexandria, which Alexander had founded and which was culturally more aligned with Greece. The Ptolemy's kept up a fairly insular existence in Alexandria, and they retained their Greek identity throughout the dynasty. This included generally marrying other Macedonian Greeks, although it's possible but not conclusively documented, that there may have been high ranking Egyptians among the king's wives or concubines toward the end of the dynasty.

This dynasty ended with Cleopatra, the seventh. He was typically just known as Cleopatra. She was the daughter of Ptolemy the 12th and also married to her brother Ptolemy, the 13th.

She was the only Ptolemaic ruler to learn the Egyptian language or to really take any effort at all to learn about the people she was ruling, especially in the first generations after Alexander's death, Hellenistic rulers were typically polygamous kings had multiple wives simultaneously. Queens, however, did not have multiple husbands. Ptolemy was no exception. He had four wives bias ata comma Eurydice ichi barony. She was Arseneau, the second mother, and she had two other children with Ptolemy Arseneau, a sister, Filla Tara and her brother Ptolemy.

The second there were also lots of half siblings through their father's other wives. These multiple marriages caused all kinds of chaos within the Ptolemaic dynasty and then elsewhere in the Hellenistic world and other episodes about royals. We've talked about men who rose to power or at least tried to rise to power by marrying a king's widow. But if a king had multiple wives, that meant there were multiple possible paths to the throne through his surviving widows. This is especially true if none of those women were recognized as the king's primary or lead wife, which was the case in most of these marriages during the Hellenistic period.

Instead of having sort of a formal chief or lead wife, there was this more informal, ever shifting set of favorites than alliances.

And that same was true for the king's heirs. If he had multiple sons by multiple women, then which one was supposed to be first in line for the throne? What if the king did have a clearly favored wife but his oldest son had been born to one of the other wives? Or what if the king thought the best person to rule was not his oldest son or the son of his favorite wife, but a younger son born to someone less esteemed?

You could see how this gets very complicated in a hurry. Yes, many of Alexander's successors addressed this problem by choosing a son to be their co ruler. They intended that son to eventually take the throne. But this was really more about smoothing the transition from one king to the next, then like formally permanently designating an heir and then the process of determining who that co ruler would be and keeping him in that position. That could all be really fraught.

The King's wives were continually focused on elevating the status of their sons over those of the other wives. And also, if I king died unexpectedly without having chosen a co ruler, then that left everything just totally unsettled.

In other words, there was a lot of chaos within the Ptolemaic dynasty and outside of it, thanks to infighting among the dyadic conflicts with kingdoms and administrations that had not been part of Alexander's empire and these multiple marriages and potential lines of succession. And that brings us back to our sin away. She was born sometime between three, eighteen and three eleven BCE. Most sources put it somewhere around three sixteen. But there's just no documentation of her birth at all.

This year is really a best guess estimate based on the year of her first marriage. She was probably born in Memphis, but would have still been a child when Ptolemy moved the family to Alexandria. That happened around 311 BCE and we're going to get to her life.

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Pepin's dot com. As we said before the break, Arseneau spent most of her childhood and youth in Alexandria. Her brothers and half brothers were educated through tutors, and it's possible that she and her sister and her half sisters shared in that education as well. But we don't really know for sure, really. We know almost nothing about Arseneau childhood or upbringing, but we do know that her family's position at court was not all that secure. As we said earlier, there was a lot of jockeying among the king's wives and sons as they tried to establish a line of succession among all of those assorted marriages and families.

While our Sideway was in Alexandria, her mother, Barony. She wasn't at the top of this hierarchy. Instead, Ptolemy, the first, favored his first wife, Eurydice, and her son, Ptolemy. Chirinos was as a consequence, the presumed successor to the throne, another source of instability in Arseneau. His childhood would have been the ongoing warfare among the dyadic high in 3001, B.C., Ptolemy United with Senecas Salukis, the first indicator, and Cassandre against antagonist the first and his son Demitrius, the first antagonist, and Demitrius ruled Western Asia.

The battle between all these forces took place at Ipsus and Ptolemy and his allies were victorious, thanks in part to elephants that were contributed by Marijan Emperor Chondra Gupta. We talked about Chander Gupta's alliance with Salukis and our episode on Ashoka The Righteous back in May of Twenty Twenty.

This victory led to a whole string of marriages among the four victorious Dyadic Kai and their relatives. This included Arseneau, was married to lie Civicus in about three hundred BCE. Lycett MCIs was king of Thrace and he also took control of what had been antagonises territory after the Battle of Ipsus.

Arseneau was probably in her teens when this marriage took place and my Senecas was in his 50s or 60s. And although it was pretty common for men to marry younger women, this age difference was a lot more dramatic than usual. And that led to a lot of really derisive jokes and unflattering depictions of both of them, basically with her being branded as a gold digging schemer and him as a doddering old man, even though really he was still pretty spry. He was an active military leader when they got married.

Arseneau They moved to the capital of Lycett Michela on the Gallipoli Peninsula in what is now Turkey. She and Civicus had three sons over the next six years. Ptolemy born around two ninety nine BCE Lycett MCIs born around two ninety seven and Philip born around two ninety four.

Moving away from her father's court and her mother's subordinate position there definitely did not free are sent away from the kind of rivalries and infighting that she had grown up in, though my stomach has already had at least three other wives Nicaea, a mistress and a Persian woman whose name is not recorded. That last marriage had taken place during a mass wedding that Alexander the Great arranged in Suza and three twenty four BCE. This is a marriage of about 80 high ranking Greek men to Persian noble women, and it was meant to symbolically unify Greece and Persia and to create a generation of, at least hypothetically, loyal offspring from these marriages, children would be considered both Greek and Persian.

Ptolemy, the first, had also married his wife, Arkoma, at the ceremony, although she started out in a more subordinate position.

Arseneau a status during her marriage to lie Civicus, rose thanks to some events that happened back in Egypt. One was that her brother told me. The second was named Ptolemy, the first SKO monarch in two eighty five BCE. There are also records of Veronique's Chariot team winning at the Olympic Games, and if this was our his mother baronetcy, she would have shared in the glory as well. It is, however, not 100 percent clear which Baron Ichi this was or exactly when it happened.

I read a whole paper basically which baronetcy won at the Olympic Games. It sounds like a very weird setup for a sitcom, regardless of whether that really was. Her mother. Arseneau with name comes up in accounts of Civicus is Deedes is King and the names of his other wives don't lie. Senecas renamed cities after himself and his family, including Arsinoe. He also gave her control of Cassandre in northern Greece, as well as three other smaller cities that were all along the Black Sea.

In two eighty four BCE, Lysa mixes oldest son. ECOSOC Lee's son of Nicaea was accused of treason. Accounts of what happened contradict each other pretty dramatically in some arseneau manip. Related Civicus into suspecting his son of plotting against him, something that she could have done to try to secure a future for her own sons, but in some accounts, Arseneau was infatuated with ECOSOC Liz and he rejected her and thus she plotted against him to get revenge. There's no actual documentation of that, but it kind of ties into the whole idea that there was this gigantic age difference between her and her husband.

And what if she may be like this younger, closer to her own age man at court?

Other sources do not involve Arseneau in this at all, though they describe life Civicus as coming to this suspicion on his own, but then kind of filtering his response through our sent away to distance himself from it. Or in still other accounts, Agathe O'Kelly's really was plotting against his father, trying to guarantee his own position as the future king. And then that plot was discovered. So lots of different options here. Regardless of what actually happened, Agatha O'Kelly's was tried and executed.

Here's a moment where the convoluted Ptolemaic family tree really comes into play.

So it just brace. Agatha Achilles's widow was our Sunways half sister, Lysander, daughter of Ptolemy, the first and Eurydice. And to recap, Ptolemy and Eurydice son Ptolemy Chirinos had been Ptolemy's presumed successor before he named our Sunways full brother Ptolemy, the second as his caroler into eighty five. It is possible that this entire accusation against Agatha Hockley's was precipitated by Chirinos joining his sister. At least Civicus is caught after having been displaced from the court of Ptolemy the first.

If so, this whole incident may have been connected to the rivalry between Ptolemy's wives baronetcy and Eurydice and by extension, their children.

After Agatha Achilles's death, Lisandro and Chirinos, who were just going to call Chirinos because there are too many Ptolemy's, they went to Salukis, the first indicator for aid, and that led to a war between Thrace and the Soviets. That empire, although like Civicus, had taken control of territory and Western Asia after the Battle of Ipsus, a lot of the political leaders and people there sided with Salukis. The war between Civicus and Salukis finally ended with the battle of corrupting and 281 B.C.

This is actually the last battle in the wars of the dyadic and life. Civicus, who at this point was almost 80, was killed in battle. Arseneau was about 35 at this point, and she had a company glycemic as to war, but not to the actual battle. She stayed behind in emphasis, but that city's residents wound up siding with the solutions and opened the gate for the saluted army. Away is described as escaping the city disguised in rags, while one of her attendants put on her royal garments and acted as a decoy.

In some accounts, this decoy was killed, but in others she survived. Since Arseneau had been given control of Cassandre and still had supporters there, she fled to that city and went into hiding. This is already so much drama. But then Ptolemy Carina's turned on Salukis. They had been in the process of conquering what was left of Arseneau late husband's kingdom. They had crossed the Hellespont, which is now known as the Dardanelles, into Thrace. When Carrados stabbed Salukis to death.

This may actually be what earned him the nickname Chirinos, which means Thunderbolt. Then Ptolemy Chirinos turned his attention to his half sister Arseneau way. We're going to get into that after a sponsor break. Brought to you by Marvel Studios, The Falcon and the Winter Soldier and original series now streaming exclusively on Disney. Plus Anthony Mackie and Sebastian Stan have reprised their roles as Sam Wilson and Bucky Barnes in the next installment to the Marvel Universe. Together, they've teamed up for a comedic action packed adventure to honor Captain America's legacy.

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Just to recap where we were before the break, because I feel like the situation is very tangled, our sin away had married life. Then I kissed the king of Thrace, whose son, Agatha Hockley's, was tried for treason and executed. Agatha Achilles's widow was Arseneau half sister, Lisandro, and after the execution, she and her brother, Ptolemy Carrados went to Salukis, the first indicator for aid. So Lucas went to war against Arseneau husbandly Civicus, who was killed in battle.

But then Ptolemy Carrados turned against Salukis and killed him. Meanwhile, our Sadoway fled to Cassandre, which her late husband had given to her earlier on in that marriage. That is where we left off.

Although Ptolemy, Chirinos and Salukis had taken a lot of the territory that lies Civicus had previously held, there were still people who were loyal to our sin away, and her late husband, Chirinos, probably wanted to protect himself from those people, as well as from anyone who had been loyal to Salukis. He probably also wanted Cassandre itself, but whatever his exact reasons were, he lay siege to that city, offering to marry his half sister Ursin away and adopt her children as his own.

He said he would take no other wives and have no other children. Her sons would be his heirs are sent away and Ptolemy Chirinos were both in their mid thirties. At this point, Arseneau, they really had no reason to trust her half brother, her full brother Ptolemy. The second had displaced him as the presumed heir to the Ptolemaic kingdom. He and his allies, the Lucas', had gone to war with and ultimately killed her husband. He was also literally besieging the city where she had taken refuge.

That's how you Igal didn't you know? But at the same time, here's the thing. She really did not have many other options. If she and her sons managed to escape Cassandra, there was no guarantee that they would be able to make it all the way to Alexandria and to her brother's protection there before being apprehended. If she married someone with enough military and political power, she might be able to defend herself against Chirinos. But although high ranking women in this era weren't generally forced to marry without their consent, they also were not people who negotiated these unions.

Their male relatives did that. You could argue that Carrados kind of did an end run around that whole thing, right, by negotiating a marriage with his half sister himself. But regardless, Arseneau agreed to marry Ptolemy Chirinos. She did the one thing that she really could to try to protect herself in this situation, which was that she demanded that the marriage ceremony be conducted in public. Chirinos agreed. But then immediately afterward, he murdered her two young sons, Lysa, Marcus and Phillip.

Her oldest son, Ptolemy, escaped. It's possible he just was not there when his younger brothers were murdered. He was the only one of her sons who had reached adulthood by this point. And there is some suggestion that he and his mother were estranged in some way. Arseneau was forced to flee once again, this time taking refuge in cemetaries.

Accounts are pretty contradictory about what chirinos his motivations were in killing his nephews, whether that really had been his plan from the beginning. Whatever it was, though, he did not wind up remaining king of all this territory for long. He married Arseneau and about 280 BCE and the following year his territory was attacked by the Gauls and he was killed in battle. Eventually, sometime between 280 and 276 BCE. Arseneau returned to Egypt from Sammeth race, possibly taking her son Ptolemy with her.

It had been at least twenty years at that point since Arseneau had been in Alexandria. Her brother Ptolemy. The second was now the king and his court had been through its own allegations of treachery. His first wife passed away. The first, just to keep it confusing, had been exiled under suspicion of plotting against him. Arsinoe the first was the daughter of our son away, the second husband like Civicus. And although it is not clear which of his wives was passed away, the first mother, she was much younger than ours anyway.

The second and it's possible the elder Arseneau may have even helped raise her. This timeline is really, really fuzzy, but it seems that are sent away. The first suspicion and exile happened before are sent away. The second returned to Alexandria, although some sources still try to pin the whole thing on arson away. The second a few years after returning to Egypt and about 273 BCE Arseneau, the second married her brother Ptolemy the second and. Details of this marriage aren't really known, they had no children together, although our son away, the second did adopt our son away, the first children as her own.

Ptolemy did not take any other wives after marrying his sister, although he did have several concubines are sent away and Ptolemy were both given the moniker Philadelphi or sibling loving our Synagis.

Earlier marriage to her half brother Ptolemy. Chirinos had been unusual in the Greek world, but such a marriage was it totally unheard of and it was legally permitted in some places. But marrying her full brother Ptolemy, the second would have been far more unusual among the Greeks. It wasn't really unusual in the Egyptian society. The Ptolemy's were ruling, though at least not for Egyptian royalty. We talked about this in our episode on Hatshepsut back in twenty nineteen in Egyptian, King often took a sister or half sister as his great royal wife.

With that pairing echoing back to an Egyptian creation story in that story that got a tomb, had no partner, and created a pair of sibling deities who in turn created another pair of sibling deities as their descendants, continuing that line in pairs. It doesn't seem like this brother sister marriage was as taboo in the ancient Greek world as it would be in the West today. And there's really almost no surviving account of the actual Greek response to it at the time passing away.

And Ptolemy did take some steps to try to normalize it, though, including comparing themselves to the Greek degrees Souce and Herra, who were also married siblings. They also made the comparison to Egyptian deities, ISIS and those Sirus who were descendants of that chain of Egyptian sibling partners. Although this was really one of the few ways that they tried to frame themselves as Egyptian at all.

We have no documentation of their thought process or reasoning for this marriage. It's possible that they just wanted to consolidate some of their political power or that they thought they'd be a little more protected. In a world of perpetual dynastic rivalries and infighting. Arseneau They may have thought that marrying her brother was her last chance to secure a political future for her one surviving son. There are several references to various Ptolemy's in the historical record that may have been him, meaning the son.

But it is not 100 percent clear where he wound up. It was not in the primary Ptolemaic line of succession, though cults were a huge part of the religious and political structure of the Hellenistic world, with rulers being deified and worshipped sometimes during their lifetimes. And this also had some roots in the Egyptian tradition of defying royalty Arseneau away and Ptolemy established the Theo Adelfa or the cult of the royal couple. Arseneau herself was also deified individually, probably while she was still living.

Arseneau also established an annual festival that was held in Alexandria that honored Adonis with Ptolemy appearing in the role of Adonis and herself appearing in the role of Aphrodite, Arseneau became highly influential in Ptolemy's government. She appeared on its coins, both alone and with him and on some of these coins. She appears to be in full pharaonic regalia, suggesting that she was regarded not just as the king's wife but also as a pharaoh herself. This includes wearing the Urías or royal cobra, and our IS Cartouche also included a throne and described her as king of upper and lower Egypt.

But it is not clear if that's an honorific from her lifetime or something that was bestowed on her later as a more honorary title, Arseneau also became a popular public figure.

During her reign, she accompanied Ptolemy on a tour of the Egyptian border, and its defense is making public appearances along the way. And one year it's not clear which. She won a clean sweep of the equestrian events at the Olympic Games, although her father told me the first was the one who started the construction of the library and museum at Alexandria. Some sources credit Arseneau way, the second with actually finishing that.

She also seems to have influenced foreign policy, advocating for an alliance with Greek city states that protected their freedom from encroachment by Macedonia. This influence continued after her death. Ptolemy, the second, outlived her, and he, allied with several Greek city states against Macedonia in the criminality and war, are since his memory became sort of a recruitment and public relations tool to rally support for Egypt's involvement in that war, Arseneau became the standard for future Ptolemaic queens to follow, and her marriage to her brother also became a template for later marriages in the Ptolemaic dynasty.

As we've said, although the Ptolemy's ruled Egypt, they never really became Egyptian. They kept. Are power to themselves and in the hands of Greek people, most of the dynasties, marriages after Arseneau and Tolum were between siblings, half siblings or cousins. And this actually seems to have influenced culture in Egypt after the end of the Ptolemaic dynasty as well. There are sibling marriages that are recorded in Roman census records in Egypt after the end of this dynasty, at least to Rotunda's, were built in our Snowies honor, one in Alexandria and the other in Sammeth race.

The rotunda in Sammeth race was built in her lifetime and it was dedicated by her. But the inscription detailing who her husband was at the time has not survived. So it's possible that it was built during the reign of Civicus to commemorate the alliance between the Ptolemaic dynasty and Thrace, or during the reign of Ptolemy to commemorate Sammeth race, having sheltered arson away after she had to flee from her half brother. There are also a lot of coins that bear her image, as well as carving statues, statuettes and other depictions that are either of her or believed to be of her.

The date of Arseneau and the second death is uncertain. One Stelae lists it as in the 15th year of Ptolemy, the second reign, which would have been 270 BCE. But other sources say it was in the 17th year or 268. So she would have been in her mid 40s. Both her cults and the cult of the royal couple continued to worship her after her death. Her brother also named streets in Alexandria after her and renamed the city of Fayoum and its surrounding district for her as well.

Arsinoe also became a popular name for daughters of priestly Egyptian families. But after the end of the Ptolemaic dynasty are sent away, the second mostly vanished from literature and art.

Instead, Cleopatra's sister, Sunway, became the more well-known woman with that name that you can accidentally get a whole bunch of stuff that you bookmark that turns out to be about Cleopatra's sister and not your podcast. They're wrong.

Our Away. We will end this with a quote from Elizabeth Donelly Kanae from the introduction to Arseneau of Egypt and MassArt on a royal life. This is really the only modern English language biography of her. It's from an academic press, but it's pretty accessible and also quite short because there's not a lot that we actually know about. In a way. She wrote, quote, Looking at Arseneau ways, life is a bit like trying to meet someone at a big party, but somehow always missing them, though, perhaps getting a whiff of their perfume and hearing a lot of stories about them.

In a sense, Arseneau way is always in the other room. I really liked that clip, and I think it summed up some of my challenges researching this episode. Do you have less challenging listener mail? I do.

So this is an email posed a question, and I don't know that we'll ever tackle the topic that they suggested. But it was an interesting enough question to me that I wanted to read it. And it is from Eva. Eva says, hi, Holly and Tracey. I'm a few months late or very early sending this idea for a holiday episode. But here it is bare with me every time I watch that scene in a Christmas story, when the father breaks out a hammer and pry bar to open the giant wooden crate containing the infamous leg lamp.

I think to myself, I have never in my life received a delivery in a wooden crate, not at Christmas, not in a year of pandemic lifestyle supply delivery, not ever. Why is this? Presumably the answer is corrugated cardboard boxes. And then, I wonder, weren't corrugated cardboard boxes around in the 1960s when this movie was set to which the answer is I have no idea. It seems like a simple low tech technology that you'd expect to have been around for a long time.

And then I go to the liquor store to get boxes from moving my books like you do. And I see ten dollar bottles of wine and I wonder how much that same bottle cost back in the day whenever it was with the extra cost of shipping it around in wooden crates, presumably built into the cost. And then I get into the mental exercise of comparing the environmental impact of wooden crates versus cardboard boxes, extra fuel and exhaust to ship wooden crates versus the disposable nature of the cardboard boxes.

And I get stuck because you can reuse cardboard boxes over and over until they wear out or get damaged. People just don't reuse them much. Exactly, because they're so wonderfully light and cheap that we take them utterly for granted. But if a Christmas story is to be believed, they've only been introduced in like my boss's lifetime. So how is their impact so invisible to us? Our corrugated cardboard boxes, a classic textbook case study that all the materials scientists know about and no one else does like 3M Scotch tape is a classic case study in business circles and the Snow White had cholera outbreak.

Is the progenitor of infographics or is it like the Happy Birthday song where it's so elegantly simple that everyone assumes that sprang forth from the primordial is fully formed and ready to ship? Inquiring minds want to know? So that's my holiday episode suggestion. The history of corrugated cardboard boxes.

The e-mail goes on a bit from this, but to have time to answer the question, I'm going to stop it there. So thank you, Eva, for this email. I actually have gotten things shipped in boxes like that. One of them. It was from one of those places where you you opened your mail and there's a surprising and strange thing there, that's part of a mystery. And as you solved the mystery and the end, you get something special that's like the sort of capstone piece to this mysterious thing that you have unfolded through your through the things you've gotten in the mail.

And the final thing that we got was, was in a wooden crate very like that. Also, when I was a child, my brother and I desperately wanted to play house. Playhouses are very expensive. What my father did was cut a door into a shipping crate that had been used for a refrigerator. And that became our playhouse. So neither of those things, what I call a normal shipping circumstance, what I really think is happening in a Christmas story is that that shipping crate, which looks like like a museum shipping crate.

Like, that's part of the joke, but that is like here is your box of very carefully packed leg lamp. What in the world?

Because it is a precious artifact, Tracy. That's why. Yeah, it's it's incredibly important. It looks a lot more like you would see like an antiquity shipped to a collector than an ordinary thing that you would have shipped to your home cardboard.

However, very briefly, cardboard was developed in the mid 19th century, and by the early 20th century, cardboard boxes were coming into common use. So by the time this this film takes place, there were plenty of cardboard boxes. I really do think it is that is for comedic effect to hype up what is the magical wonder that is in this box. And it is a leg lamp leg.

Me, I don't know if you had something you wanted to add with that, Ali. No, I'm suddenly thinking about how many when she mentioned shipping alcohol, how many places were really just making alcohol for local consumption for a long time.

Oh, yeah. Being shipped around that idea of like sourcing alcohol from different magical places. So it is a little modern, but not entirely. Yeah, yeah. That would be an interesting and fun study. Rabbit hole to go down.

Yeah. Well in that, that made me think about the way less. Happy sounding like the the rum trade and how that was connected to both sugar and slavery, but that was also like a, you know, 18th and 19th century shipping things a long way on a boat. Right.

Not quite the kind of direct to consumer package. And I think not at all, although also often distilled locally so that people that landed on those islands. Oh, yeah. It had been at sea would have it as part of their healthy regimen.

Hmm. Was it's I don't know, I that suddenly took me down the mental rabbit hole of the various places near me that have started delivering from their, you know, their liquor and beer and wine stores during the pandemic. Something I have taken advantage of during these times, so thank you again for this delightfully written email. I hope we have.

You have answered your question satisfactorily. I don't know that we will do an episode on the history of cardboard, but I did think this was a fun email to listen to read and talk about.

If you would like to write to us about this or any other podcast or a history podcast that I heart radio dot com and then all over social media, edmiston history through or find our Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest and Instagram. You can subscribe to our show on the radio app and Apple podcasts and anywhere else that you get your podcasts.

Stuff you missed in history class is the production of I Heart Radio for more podcasts from My Heart radio visit by her radio app Apple Podcasts or wherever you listen to your favorite shows. Mattress Warehouse knows that buying a mattress can be tough with so many choices, where do you start introducing bed match, a patented diagnostic system that determines your pressure points and recommends the mattresses that are best for your individual sleep needs. And it's found only at Mattress Warehouse. Come to bed match at a mattress warehouse near you, visit sleep happens dotcom for locations and get free next day.

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Stamboom Homs » Arsinoë I of Macedonia (± 323-± 283)

Arsinoe (in Greek A?s. lived 4th century BC) was the mother of Ptolemy I Soter (323–283 BC), king of Egypt, was originally a concubine of Philip II, king of Macedon, and it is said she was given by Philip to Lagus, a Macedonian, while she was pregnant with Ptolemy. Hence, if we can believe our sources, Ptolemy was regarded by the Macedonians as the son of Philip.1

* Smith, William (editor) Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, "Arsinoe (1)", Boston, (1867)

1 Pausanias, Description of Greece, i. 6 Curtius Rufus, Historiae Alexandri Magni, ix. 8 Suda, s.v. "Lagos"

Arsinoe of Macedonia (Greek: Ἀρσινόη lived 4th century BC) was the mother of Ptolemy I Soter (323 BC – 283 BC), king of Egypt. She was originally a concubine of Philip II, king of Macedon, and it is said she was given by Philip to Lagus, a Macedonian, while she was pregnant with Ptolemy. Ptolemy was regarded by the Macedonians as the son of Philip.

Do you have supplementary information, corrections or questions with regards to Arsinoë I of Macedonia?
The author of this publication would love to hear from you!

034: Ptolemaic Egypt – The (Incestuous) Lion’s Brood

/>A bust of Arsinoe II. She would become the model for ambitious Ptolemaic royal women and cult goddess in her own right, though not without personal costs.

With the death of Ptolemy I Soter, the Hellenistic World would be subject to a collection of his formidable children: Ptolemy II Philadelphos, Arsinoe II, Magas, and Ptolemy Ceraunus. We also spend considerable time discussing the incestuous royal sibling marriages that would become standard policy of the Ptolemaic Dynasty.

Special thanks to Nicholas C. for editing work

The History of the British Isles Podcast

Syrian Wars – Appian
The Deipnosophists – Athenaeus
Epitome of Pompeius Trogus – Justin
Lives of Eminent Philosophers – Diogenes Laertius
Guide to Greece – Pausanias
Moralia – Plutarch
Stratagems – Polyaenus
Idyll 17 (Panyegeric to Ptolemy) – Theocritus
“Oxford History of Ancient Egypt” – Edited by Ian Shaw
“Arsinoe of Egypt and Macedon: A Royal Life” – Elizabeth Carney
“Ptolemy II Philadelphus and his World” – Edited by Paul McKechnie and Phillipe Guillaume
“A History of the Ptolemaic Empire” – Gunther Halhl
“The Last Pharaohs: Egypt Under the Ptolemies, 305-30 BC” – J.G. Manning
Ager, S. “The Power of Excess: Royal Incest and the Ptolemaic Dynasty” Anthropologica 48(2).
Gkikaki, M. “The royal sibling marriage of Ptolemy II and Arsinoe II – incestuous and yet holy” HEPHAISTOS (34)



Arsinoe and Katharine are sisters, with Arsinoe being the older sister. Katharine calls a Queens’ Duel. During the duel, Katharine shoots Arsinoe with a poisoned arrow. Believing Arsinoe to be dead, Katharine parades back to Indrid Down with her entourage. During the celebration feast, Katharine threatens to stab an Arron who badmouths Arsinoe and raises a toast in her honor.

Arsinoe reveals that she is alive and well to Katharine, and the rest of the island, during the second Queens’ Duel between Mirabella and Katharine. Katharine manages to imprison Mirabella and Arsinoe in the dungeons of the Volroy. While in the dungeons of the Volroy, Mirabella and Arsinoe agree that something is off with Katharine but ignore their feelings in order to escape with the help of Jules Milone and Emilia Vatros after Katharine’s coronation.

Arsinoe and Katharine don't have direct contact again until the final battle at Indrid Down, when Arsinoe has come to free Katharine of the dead queens possession and kill her to avenge Mirabella. Arsinoe and Katharine meet on the roof of the Volroy, and Arsinoe rids the dead queens of Katharine through low magic. She, Katharine and Pietyr then banish the dead queens of Rho Mutra's corpse and the dead queens hang in a black cloud around them. Katharine, seeing what is about to happen, tackles Arsinoe to the ground to avoid the dead queens plummet to posses Arsinoe. They begin to slide down the side of the roof into the mist, and Katharine shoves Arsinoe into the Volroy wall so she can get a hold of the stones. Before Kathrine dies, Arsinoe whispers her name and is extremely started that Katharine would save her instead of herself. 

Following her death, Arsinoe and Pietyr watch as the mist destroys what is left of the dead queens. In the mist, she sees Illian, Mirabella, Daphne and Katharine all destroying the dead queens together.


Mirabella and Arsinoe are sisters, with Mirabella being the older sister. Upon meeting, they hated and feared each other because one of the triplets will have to kill the others. However, Mirabella still remembers her sisters and both sisters are hesitant to kill each other, especially Mirabella.

At the start of the Beltane Festival, Arsinoe is brought before the Black Council for attempting to flee the island again. She is sentenced to a gruesome death. Mirabella stops the carrying out of the execution by starting a storm with her gift. Arsinoe tells her that this does not change her feelings. Believing Arsinoe purposely sent her bear to attack and kill Mirabella, Mirabella changes her mind about being willing to kill her sisters.

After a series of attempts by both sisters to kill the other fails, Mirabella and Arsinoe reconcile somewhat. Mirabella challenges Katharine to second Queen’s Duel to avenge the believed death of Arsinoe during the first Queen’s Duel. During Mirabella’s fight with Katharine, Arsinoe arrives alive and well and declares that she is giving up her claim to the throne to support Mirabella. Katharine manages to imprison Mirabella and Arsinoe with the help of Natalia. While in the dungeons of the Volroy, Mirabella and Arsinoe agree that something is off with Katharine but ignore their feelings in order to escape with the help of Jules Milone and Emilia Vatros after Katharine’s coronation.

Throughout their time together on the Mainland, Mirabella and Arsinoe grow closer to each other. Mirabella is very protective of Arsinoe, especially when Arsinoe begins having visions of the last Blue Queen. When Arsinoe decides to return to Fennbirn, Mirabella and Billy refuse to allow her to go alone and join her. Upon their return to the island, and discovering the ensuing rebellion led by Jules, Emilia, and Mathilde, Mirabella and Arsinoe clash over their differing opinions about the Legion Queen prophecy.

After Madrigal Milone is killed by Katharine, Mirabella leaves Arsinoe and the rebellion to join Katharine, Bree, and Elizabeth in Indrid Down after being offered a peace treaty by Katharine. Arsinoe is saddened by her sister’s abandonment.

Arsinoe receives Mirabella's letter of Katharine's condition after her burning and grudgingly agrees to banish the dead queens from Katharine and kill her after in the final battle at Indrid Down.

Juillenne Milone

Jules and Arsinoe are best friends and foster sisters. They are extremely close and have been since they first met. When they were eleven, Jules and Joseph tried to help Arsinoe escape the island, but the mist would not let Arsinoe leave. They were caught by Natalia Arron and punished.

While Jules is the strongest naturalist in sixty years, and Arsinoe’s gift has yet to manifest, Jules does everything to try and help her. Jules wants nothing more than for Arsinoe to become Queen Crowned. During Beltane Festival, Jules helps Arsinoe by controlling a brown bear to make it appear as if the bear is Arsinoe’s familiar.

When Arsinoe is shot with a poisoned arrow by Katharine, Jules uses her newly discovered war gift to stop Katharine and save Arsinoe. Jules brings Arsinoe to the Black Cottage, where Arsinoe is healed by Caragh Milone and Willa. Upon her recovery, Jules helps Arsinoe rescue Mirabella during the second Queen’s Duel. Arsinoe and Jules, along with Joseph and Mirabella, are imprisoned in the dungeons of the Volroy by Katharine. They are rescued by Billy and Emilia Vatros. Jules, Joseph, Mirabella, Arsinoe, and Billy attempt to flee the island. However, the island will not let Jules leave. Arsinoe and Jules are forced to say farewell to each other.

Upon Arsinoe, Mirabella, and Billy’s arrival in Sunpool, Arsinoe is reunited with Jules. They are overjoyed to be together again and fall back into their easy friendship. After Jules’ legion curse is unbound due to the death of Madrigal Milone, Arsinoe uses her poisoner gift to try and craft tonics to sedate Jules and work on trying to find a cure.

Joseph Sandrin

Joseph and Arsinoe have been friends since Arsinoe moved to Wolf Spring when she was six. Joseph and Jules try to help Arsinoe escape Fennbirn when they were younger, but were caught by Natalia Arron. As punishment, Joseph was banished to the Mainland for five years and placed under the care of the Chatworth family. Arsinoe blamed herself for his punishment and separation from his family. She is very happy when Joseph returns to Wolf Spring, even though he brings a suitor with him, his foster brother, Billy. Arsinoe trusts Joseph and is heartbroken by his death. She frequently visits his grave while on the Mainland.

William Chatworth Jr.

Billy comes to Fennbirn as one of the suitors to the queens. At first, Arsinoe did not like Billy was rude to him, only spending time with him to make Joseph happy. Eventually, they grew closer and became friends. After Billy saves Arsinoe from a bear attack, she begins to really care about him. During Beltane Festival, Arsinoe was the only queen Billy bowed for. Gradually, Arsinoe realizes that she is in love with Billy. Billy returns her feelings and the two become very protective of each other. Billy helps Arsinoe And Mirabella escape Fennbirn and brings them in to his home and works to keep Arsinoe safe and happy.

Emilia Vatros

Emilia Vatros is one of the best warriors of Bastain City who helps Arsinoe, Jules, Mirabella and Joseph escape the Volroy.

When Arsinoe returns to Fennbirn, her and Emilia do not get along being Jules' two closest friends. Arsinoe holds no trust for Emilia given her push to start the rebellion and her adaptation of Jules as the Legion Queen. The two often bicker and snipe at each other over the best fate for Jules and the loyalty of Mirabella, among other things. Emilia does nothing to ease Arsinoe's trust, until Jules' Legion Curse is unbound at Innisful Valley. Emilia is constantly at her side when she can be, and tries to ease the rebel warriors concerns. When Arsinoe comes up with the solution of tethering the curse to another, Emilia immediately offered herself to have the curse bound to. Arsinoe is still skeptical of her intentions, and Emilia ends up confessing her love for Jules to Arsinoe to ensure her trust.

Emilia and Jules nearly bleed to death in the process, but once the tethering works Emilia is overjoyed. Part of Arsinoe always thinks that Emilia's concern for Jules' safety is purely for the health of the rebellion, but she does come to notice more and more Emilia's feelings for Jules. In the battle at Indrid Down, Arsinoe asks Emilia to look out for Billy, as she knows that Emilia is one of the best warriors and trusted by Jules. Somewhat reluctantly Emilia agrees that she will do whatever she can do. Emilia ends up saving Billy after he is cut by Pietyr and charged by queensguard. She is also the first to help Jules after the battle.

Arsinoe witnesses the unfurling of Emilia and Jules' feelings for each other and begins to trust Emilia by the end of the story.


Individual Note

Cleopatra VII of Egypt
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Cleopatra Selene Philopator
Queen of Egypt

Reign 51 BC - August 12, 30 BC
Ptolemy XIII (51 BC-47 BC)
Ptolemy XIV (47 BC-44 BC)
Caesarion (44 BC-30 BC)
Born January 69 BC
Died August 12, 30 BC
Predecessor Ptolemy XII
Successor None (Roman province)
Consort Ptolemy XIII
Julius Caesar
Mark Antony
Issue Caesarion, Alexander Helios, Cleopatra Selene, Ptolemy Philadelph
Royal House Ptolemaic
Father Ptolemy XII

Cleopatra VII Philopator (in Greek. e?p?t?a F. p?t?? January 69 BC August 12, 30 BC), later Cleopatra Thea Neotera Philopator kai Philopatris, was queen of Ptolemaic Egypt, the last member of the Ptolemaic dynasty and hence the last Hellenistic ruler of Egypt. Although many other Egyptian Queens shared the name, she is usually known as simply Cleopatra, and all of her similarly named predecessors have mostly been forgotten.

Cleopatra was a co-ruler of Egypt with her father (Ptolemy XII Auletes), her brothers/husbands Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV and later her son Ptolemy XV Caesarion. Cleopatra survived a coup engineered by her brother Ptolemy XIII's courtiers, consummated a liaison with Gaius Julius Caesar that solidified her grip on the throne, and, after Caesar's assassination, aligned with Mark Antony, with whom she produced twins. In all, Cleopatra had 4 children, 3 by Antony and 1 by Caesar. Her unions with her brothers produced no children.

After Antony's rival and Caesar's legal heir, Gaius Julius Caesar Octavian, brought the might of Rome against Egypt, Cleopatra took her own life on August 12, 30 BC. Her legacy survives in the form of numerous dramatizations of her story, including William Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra and several modern films.

Cleopatra was a direct descendant of Alexander's general, Ptolemy I Soter, son of Arsinoe and Lacus, both of Macedon. A Greek by language and culture, Cleopatra is reputed to have been the first member of her family in their 300-year reign in Egypt to have learned the Egyptian language.

Contents [hide]
1 Early years
1.1 Father's reign
1.2 The accession to the throne
2 Cleopatra and Julius Caesar
2.1 The assassination of Pompey
2.2 Caesar and Caesarion
3 Cleopatra and Mark Antony
4 Suicide
5 Cleopatra in art, film, TV, and literature
5.1 Literature-drama
5.2 Literature-other
5.3 Films
5.4 TV
5.5 Opera
5.6 Ancient art - triumph painting, sculpture
5.7 Paintings, Renaissance onwards
5.7.1 The suicide
5.7.2 Other
6 Notes
7 External links
7.1 General
7.2 Paintings of Cleopatra

Early years
Father's reign
"Cleopatra" is Greek for "father's glory," and her full name, Cleopatra Thea Philopator, means "the Goddess Cleopatra, the Beloved of Her Father." She was the third daughter of the king Ptolemy XII Auletes, probably born to her father's sister, making her third in line to rule after her two other sisters died. Little is known about Cleopatra's childhood, but she would have observed the disordered events and loss of public affection for the Ptolemaic dynasty under the reign of her father. This occurred for many reasons including physical and moral degeneration of the sovereigns, centralization of power and corruption. This lead to uprising in and loss of Cyprus and of Cyrenaica, making Ptolemy's reign one of the most calamitous of the dynasty. In 58 BC Cleopatra's older sister, Berenice IV seized power from her father. With the assistance of the Roman governor of Syria, Aulus Gabinius, Ptolemy XII overturned his eldest daughter in 55 BC and had her executed. This left Cleopatra with her husband and younger brother, Ptolemy XIII, joint heirs to the throne.

The accession to the throne
Pharaoh Ptolemy XII died in March 51 BC making the 18 year old Cleopatra and the 12 year old Ptolemy XIII joint monarchs. These first three years of their reign was difficult due to economic difficulties, famine, deficient floods of Nile and political conflicts. Although Cleopatra was married to her young brother, she quickly showed indications that she had no intentions of sharing the reign.

In August 51 BC relations between the sovereigns completely broke down, as Cleopatra was dropping Ptolemy's name from official documents and Cleopatra's face was appearing alone on coins, which went against Ptolemaic tradition of female rulers being subordinate to male co-rulers. This resulted in a cabal of courtiers, led by the eunuch Pothinus, removing Cleopatra from power and making Ptolemy sole ruler in circa 48 BC (possibly earlier, a decree exists with Ptolemy's name alone from 51 BC). She tried to raise a rebellion around Pelusium but she was soon forced to flee Egypt with her only surviving sister, Arsinoë.[1]

Cleopatra and Julius Caesar
The assassination of Pompey
Cleopatra bathing with Caesar looking on he is not pictured, however. Royal London Wax Museum, Victoria BCWhile Cleopatra was in exile, Ptolemy became embroiled in the Roman civil war. In the autumn of 48 BC, Pompey fled from the forces of Julius Caesar to Alexandria, seeking sanctuary. Ptolemy, only fifteen years old at that time, had set up a throne for himself on the harbour from where he watched as on July 28, 48 BC Pompey was murdered by one of his former officers, now in Ptolemaic service. Ptolemy is thought to have ordered the death as a way of pleasing Julius Caesar and thus become an ally of Rome, to which Egypt was in debt. This was a catastrophic miscalculation on Ptolemy's part. When Caesar arrived in Egypt two days later, Ptolemy presented him with Pompey's severed, pickled head. Caesar was enraged. This was probably due to the fact that, although political enemies, Pompey was a Consul of Rome and the widower of Caesar's only daughter, Julia who died in childbirth with their son. Caesar seized the Egyptian capital and imposed himself as arbiter between the rival claims of Ptolemy and Cleopatra.

Caesar and Caesarion
In Plutarch, eager to take advantage of Julius Caesar's anger with Ptolemy, Queen Cleopatra returned to the palace in a Persian carpet and had it presented to Caesar by her servant. It was at this point Caesar abandoned his plans to annex Egypt, instead backing Cleopatra's claim to the throne. After a short civil war, Ptolemy XIII was drowned in the Nile and Caesar restored Cleopatra to her throne, with another younger brother Ptolemy XIV as new co-ruler.

Despite the thirty year age difference, during his stay in Egypt between 48 BC and 47 BC Caesar became Cleopatra's lover. On 23 June 47 BC Cleopatra gave birth to a child, Ptolemy Caesar (nicknamed "Caesarion" which means "little Caesar"). Cleopatra claimed Caesar was the father and wished him to name the boy his heir, but Caesar refused, choosing his grand-nephew Octavian instead.

Cleopatra and Caesarion visited Rome between 46 BC and 44 BC and were present when Caesar was assassinated on 15 March 44 BC. Before or just after she returned to Egypt, Ptolemy XIV died mysteriously (possibly poisoned by Cleopatra). Cleopatra made Caesarion her co-regent and successor.

Cleopatra and Mark Antony
In 42 BC, Mark Antony, one of the triumvirs who ruled Rome in the power vacuum following Caesar's death, summoned Cleopatra to meet him in Tarsus to answer questions about her loyalty. Cleopatra arrived in great state, and so charmed Antony that he chose to spend the winter of 41 BC40 BC with her in Alexandria. On 25 December 40 BC she gave birth to twins, who were named Alexander Helios and Cleopatra Selene (II).

Four years later, in 37 BC, Antony visited Alexandria again while on route to make war with the Parthians. He renewed his relationship with Cleopatra, and from this point on Alexandria would be his home. He married Cleopatra according to the Egyptian rite (a letter quoted in Suetonius suggests this), although he was at the time married to Octavia Minor, sister of his fellow triumvir Octavian. He and Cleopatra had another child, Ptolemy Philadelphus. At the Donations of Alexandria in late 34 BC, following Antony's conquest of Armenia, Cleopatra and Caesarion were crowned co-rulers of Egypt and Cyprus Alexander Helios was crowned ruler of Armenia, Media, and Parthia Cleopatra Selene (II) was crowned ruler of Cyrenaica and Libya and Ptolemy Philadelphus was crowned ruler of Phoenicia, Syria, and Cilicia. Cleopatra also took the title of Queen of Kings.

There are a number of unverifiable but famous stories about Cleopatra, of which one of the best known is that, at one of the lavish dinners she shared with Antony, she playfully bet him that she could spend ten million sesterces on a dinner. He accepted the bet. The next night, she had a conventional, unspectacular meal served he was ridiculing this, when she ordered the second course only a cup of strong vinegar. She then removed one of her priceless pearl earrings, dropped it into the vinegar, allowed it to dissolve, and drank the mixture.

Antony's behavior was considered outrageous by the Romans, and Octavian convinced the Senate to levy war against Egypt. In 31 BC Antony's forces faced the Romans in a naval action off the coast of Actium. Cleopatra was present with a fleet of her own. Popular legend tells us that when she saw that Antony's poorly equipped and manned ships were losing to the Romans' superior vessels, she took flight and that Antony abandoned the battle to follow her, but no contemporary evidence states this was the case.

The Death of Cleopatra by Reginald ArthurFollowing the Battle of Actium, Octavian invaded Egypt. As he approached Alexandria, Antony's armies deserted to Octavian on August 12, 30 BC.

Antony committed suicide, having been told Cleopatra was dead. A few days later Cleopatra died as well by her own hand. The ancient sources generally agree that she was bitten by an asp, as were two of her servants. Octavian, waiting in a building nearby, was informed of her death, and went to see for himself.[2]

Cleopatra's son by Caesar, Caesarion, was proclaimed pharaoh by Egyptians, but Octavian had already won. Caesarion was captured and executed, his fate reportedly sealed by Octavian's famous phrase: "Too many Caesars". Thus ended not just the Hellenistic line of Egyptian pharaohs, but the line of all Egyptian pharaohs. The three children of Cleopatra with Antony were spared and taken back to Rome where they were reared by Antony's wife, Octavia.

Cleopatra in art, film, TV, and literature
Cleopatra's story has fascinated scores of writers and artists through the centuries. No doubt, much of her appeal lay in her legend as a great seductress who was able to ally herself with two of the most powerful men (Caesar and Antony) of her time. These themes were explored in the 2001 exhibition Cleopatra of Egypt: From History to Myth.

Among the more famous works on her:

Antony and Cleopatra (c. 1607) by William Shakespeare
All for Love (1678) by John Dryden
Caesar and Cleopatra (1901) by George Bernard Shaw
The Death of Cleopatre by Ahmed Shawqi
Memoirs of Cleopatra by Margaret George
Cléopâtre by Jules-Émile-Frédéric Massenet
Incipit Legenda Cleopatrie Martiris, Egipti Regine from Geoffrey Chaucer's The Legend of Good Women
Cléopatre by Victorien Sardou
Cleopatra (1889) by H. Rider Haggard
The Memoirs of Cleopatra by Margaret George
Many Asterix books, with a Cleopatra inspired by Elizabeth Taylor.
archie and mehitabel a satirical newspaper column (later collected into books and worked into a play, Shinbone Alley (later retitled archie and mehitabel)) in which Mehitabel the Cat claims to be the reincarnation of Cleopatra.
The Royal Diaries: Cleopatra: Daughter of the Nile, Egypt, 57 B.C. by Kristiana Gregory (ficitionlized story of Cleopatra's childhood and adolecense)
Film poster for the 1917 Cleopatra film.The earliest Cleopatra-related motion picture was Antony and Cleopatra (1908) with Florence Lawrence as Cleopatra. The earliest film on Cleopatra as the main subject was Cleopatra, Queen of Egypt, starring Helen Gardner (1912).

Among the film/TV works inspired by the Queen of the Nile:

(1917): Cleopatra: Theda Bara (Cleopatra), Fritz Leiber (Caesar), Thurston Hall (Antony). Directed by J. Gordon Edwards. Based on Émile Moreau's play Cléopatre, Sardou's play Cléopatre, and Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra.
(1934): Cleopatra: Claudette Colbert (Cleopatra), Warren William (Caesar), Henry Wilcoxon (Antony). Oscar-winning Cecil B. DeMille epic.
(1946): Caesar and Cleopatra: Vivien Leigh (Cleopatra), Claude Rains (Caesar), Stewart Granger, Flora Robson Oscar-nominated version of George Bernard Shaw's play. Leigh also played Cleopatra opposite then-husband's Laurence Olivier's Caesar in a later London stage version.
(1953): Serpent of the Nile: Rhonda Fleming (Cleopatra), Raymond Burr (Mark Antony), Michael Fox (Octavian).
(1963): Cleopatra: Elizabeth Taylor (Cleopatra), Rex Harrison (Caesar), Richard Burton (Antony). Oscar-winning block-buster most (in)famously remembered for the off-screen affair between Taylor and Burton and the at-the-time massive $44 million cost.
(1964): Carry On Cleo, a spoof of the 1963 film, with Amanda Barrie as Cleopatra, Sid James as Mark Antony, and Kenneth Williams as Caesar.
(1970): Kureopatora (Cleopatra: Queen of Sex), a bizarre animated Japanese movie by Osamu Tezuka. The English subtitled version is said to be lost.
(1974): Antony & Cleopatra: performed by London's Royal Shakespeare Company. Starred Janet Suzman (Cleopatra), Richard Johnson (Antony), and Patrick Stewart (Enobarbus).
(1999): Cleopatra (movie): Leonor Varela (Cleopatra), Timothy Dalton (Caesar), Billy Zane (Antony). Based on the book Memoirs of Cleopatra by Margaret George, it is less faithful to history than the earlier versions
A longer discussion of Cleopatra films is at: Cleopatra (movie).

(2005): Rome (TV series), episode 8 of season 1 features Cleopatra extensively, along with her brother Ptolemy XIII. The episode begins with Pompey's assassination and ends with the birth of Caesarion.
Appears as a character in operas by Handel, Carl Heinrich Graun, Johann Adolf Hasse, and Johann Mattheson|
Antony and Cleopatra by Samuel Barber opened the new Metropolitan Opera House in 1966.
Ancient art - triumph painting, sculpture
The most famous painting of Cleopatra is one that almost certainly no longer exists now. Because the queen died in Egypt well before Augustus' triumph could be put on in Rome, in which she would have walked in chains, Augustus commissioned a large painting of her, which was carried in his triumphal procession, and which may have represented her being poisoned by an asp. The sources for the story are Plut. Ant. 86 and App. Civ. II.102, although the latter may well refer to a statue, and Cass. Dio LI.21.3 reports that the "image" was of gold, and thus not a painting at all. The purported painting was seen and engraved in the early 19th century: it was in a private collection near Sorrento. Since then, this painting is said to have formed part of a collection in Cortona, but there no longer appears to be any trace of it its quiet disappearance is almost certainly due to its being a fake. For comprehensive details on the entire question, see the external links at the end of this article.

Paintings, Renaissance onwards
Cleopatra and her death have inspired hundreds of paintings from the Renaissance to our own time, none of them of any historical value of course the subject appealing in particular to French academic painters.

Sir Thomas Browne: Of the Picture describing the death of Cleopatra (1672)
John Sartain: On the Antique Portrait of Cleopatra (1818)
The suicide
Suicide of Cleopatra. Oil on canvas. 46 x 36-3/4 in. (116.8 x 93.3 cm) painted by Giovanni Francesco Barbieri, also called Guercino. Painted in 1621 and which hangs in the collection in the Norton Simon Museum in Pasadena, California. It shows Cleopatra and in her hand a snake that she prepares to use in her suicide.
The Death of Cleopatra, painted by Jean André Rixens, painted in 1874 and that hangs in the Musée des Augustins in Toulouse, France.
The Death of Cleopatra, Guido Cagnacci, 1658The Death of Cleopatra, painted by Guido Cagnacci, painted in 1658. Oil on canvas. Hanging in the Vienna Kunsthistorisches Museum.
The Banquet of Cleopatra (17435). Oil on Canvas, 248.2 x 357.8cm. Painted by Giambattista Tiepolo (16961770), which hangs in the National Gallery of Victoria, Australia, depicting the banquet in which Cleopatra dissolves her pearl earring in a glass of vinegar.
Cleopatra and Caesar (Cléopâtre et César) (1866). Oil on canvas. Painted by Jean-Léon Gérôme (18241904). The original painting has been lost, and only copies remain. The work depicts Cleopatra standing before a seated Caesar, painted in the Orientalist style.
^ Peter Green (1990). Alexander to Actium: The Historical Evolution of the Hellenistic Age. Berkeley: University of California Press, 661-664. ISBN 0-520-05611-6.
^ Smith, William (ed.) (1867). Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. Boston: Little, Brown & Company, 802.
External links
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Cleopatra VII of Egypt[edit]
Cleopatra on the Web - Some 580 resources, including ancient and modern pictures.
Cleopatra VII Philopator ancient sources
Cleopatra VII (VI) at LacusCurtius (Chapter XIII of E. R. Bevan's House of Ptolemy, 1923)
Cleopatra - a Victorian children's book by Jacob Abbott, 1852, Project Gutenberg edition.
Genealogy of Cleopatra VII
James Grout: Cleopatra, part of the Encyclopædia Romana
Cleopatra VII Ptolemaic Dynasty
Discovery Channel "Mysterious Death of Cleopatra"
Paintings of Cleopatra
Sir Thomas Browne: Of the Picture describing the death of Cleopatra (1672)
John Sartain: On the Antique Portrait of Cleopatra (1818)
Preceded by:
Ptolemy XII Ptolemaic Queen of Egypt
with Ptolemy XII, Ptolemy XIII, Ptolemy XIV, and Ptolemy XV Succeeded by:
Roman province

Elizabeth I and Mary I

When Mary I finally inherited the throne of England in 1553, she had endured a lifetime of disappointments, heartbreaks and slights. The only child of King Henry VIIIਊnd the Catholic, saintly Catherine of Aragon, she had been the beloved heir to her father’s throne for much of her childhood. 

The Print Collector/Getty Images

But after Henry’s passionate affair and subsequent marriage to the Protestant-leaning Anne Boleyn, her world was destroyed. She was ripped away from her mother, stripped of her royal title and forced to curtsey to her new half-sister, a small redheaded baby—Princess Elizabeth.

Her new stepmother was particularly cruel to young Mary, and the impressionable teenager stored away these insults for the rest of her life. After Anne Boleyn’s execution in 1536, Mary’s status was restored, and she appeared to become fond of her now motherless half-sister Elizabeth.

But their tortured familial history was only part of what would make this ceasefire temporary. “Relations between elder and younger sisters are often difficult—particularly when there is an age gap of seventeen years, as there was to be between Mary and her half-sister Elizabeth,” writes David Starkey in Elizabeth: The Struggle for the Throne. 𠇋ut fate also cast them as opposites in appearance and character and opponents in religion and politics.”

With the vehemently Catholic Mary’s accession in 1553, all her old bitterness rose to the surface. Though Elizabeth had ridden into the city of London with Mary for her coronation, their relationship quickly soured. Elizabeth was now the “second person” in the kingdom—young, charismatic, confident and Protestant.

Hulton Archive/Getty Images

In 1554, the Wyatt Rebellion was launched in reaction to Mary’s unpopular plan to marry the Catholic King Philip of Spain. Leaders of the rebellion planned to put Elizabeth on the throne, and Mary believed that her sister had been part of the plot. Elizabeth was arrested and sent to the ominous Tower of London, the same place her mother had been executed decades before. “Oh Lorde!” she cried. “I never thought to have come in here as prisoner!”

Once in the tower, Elizabeth wrote her sister a frantic, rambling letter, her usual composure lost to fear:

I pray to God the like evil persuasions persuade not one sister against the other, and all for that they have heard false report, and the truth not known. Therefore, once again, kneeling with humbleness of heart, because I am not suffered to bow the knees of my body, I humbly crave to speak with your Highness, which I would not be so bold as to desire if I knew not myself most clear, as I know myself most true.

The letter did not have its intended effect. Mary was further enraged by this letter, feeling that it lacked the respect she deserved. However, she did let her sister out of the Tower after three weeks, and Elizabeth was sent to Woodstock under house arrest. Here, she etched a short poem into the window of her prison with a diamond:

Elizabeth was finally pardoned a year later, and the sisters resumed a strained but cordial public relationship. Only four years later, in 1558, Mary died during an influenza epidemic, and Elizabeth started her glorious reign.



[1] At libations to Zeus what else should rather be sung than the god himself, mighty for ever, king for evermore, router of the Pelagonians, dealer of justice to the sons of Heaven?

[4] How shall we sing of him &ndash as lord of Dicte 1 or of Lycaeum? 2 My soul is all in doubt, since debated is his birth. O Zeus, some say that thou wert born on the hills of Ida 3 others, O Zeus, say in Arcadia did these or those, O Father lie? &ldquoCretans are ever liars.&rdquo 4 Yea, a tomb, 5 O Lord, for thee the Cretans builded but thou didst not die, for thou art for ever.

[10] In Parrhasia 6 it was that Rheia bare thee, where was a hill sheltered with thickest brush. Thence is the place holy, and no fourfooted thing that hath need of Eileithyia 7 nor any woman approacheth thereto, but the Apidanians 8 call it the primeval childbed of Rheia. There when thy mother had laid thee down from her mighty lap, straightway she sought a stream of water, wherewith she might purge her of the soilure of birth and wash thy body therein.

[17] But mighty Ladon 9 flowed not yet, nor Erymanthus, 9 clearest of rivers waterless was all Arcadia yet was it anon to be called well-watered. For all that time when Rhea loosed her girdle, full many a hollow oak did water Iaon 9 bear aloft, and many a wain did Melas 10 carry and many a serpent above Carnion, 11 wet though it now be, cast its lair and a man would fare on foot over Crathis 12 and many-pebbled Metope, 13 athirst: while that abundant water lay beneath his feet.

[28] And holden in distress the lady Rheia said, "Dear Earth, give birth thou also! They birthpangs are light." So spake the goddess, and lifting her great arm aloft she smote the mountain with her staff and it was greatly rent in twain for her and poured forth a mighty flood. Therein, O Lord, she cleansed they body and swaddled thee, and gave thee to Neda to carry within the Cretan covert, that thou mightst be reared secretly: Neda, 14 eldest of the nymphs who then were about her bed, earliest birth after Styx 15 and Philyra. 16 And no idle favour did the goddess repay her, but named that stream Neda 17 which, I ween, in great flood by the very city of the Cauconians, 18 which is called Lepreion, 19 mingles its stream with Nereus, 20 and its primeval water do the son&rsquos son of the Bear, 21 Lycaon&rsquos daughter, drink.

[42] When the nymph, carrying thee, O Father Zeus, towards Cnosus, 22 was leaving Thenae 22 &ndash for Thenae as nigh to Cnosus &ndash even then, O God, thy navel fell away: hence that plain the Cydonians 23 call the Plain of the Navel. 24 But thee, O Zeus, the companions of the Cyrbantes 25 took to their arms, even the Dictaean Meliae, 26 and Adrasteia 27 laid thee to rest in a cradle of gold, and thou didst suck the rich teat of the she-goat Amaltheia, 28 and thereto eat the sweet honey-comb. For suddenly on the hills of Ida, which men call Panacra, 29 appeared the works of the Panacrian bee. And lustily round thee danced the Curetes 30 a war-dance, 31 beating their armour, that Cronus might hear with his ears the din of the shield, but not thine infant noise.

[54] Fairly didst thou wax, O heavenly Zeus, and fairly wert thou nurtured, and swiftly thou didst grow to manhood, and speedily came the down upon thy cheek. But, while yet a child, thou didst devise all the deeds of perfect stature. Wherefore thy kindred, though an earlier generation, grudged not that thou shouldst have heaven for thine appointed habitation. 32 For they said that the lot assigned to the sons of Cronus their three several abodes. 33 But who would draw lots for Olympos and for Hades &ndash save a very fool? For equal chances should one cast lots but these are the wide world apart. When I speak fiction, be it such fiction as persuades the listener&rsquos ear! Thou wert made sovereign of the gods not by casting of lots by the deeds of thy hands, thy might and that strength 34 which thou hast set beside thy throne. And the most excellent of birds 35 didst thou make the messenger of thy sings favourable to my friends be the sings thou showest! And thou didst choose that which is most excellent among men &ndash not thou the skilled in ships, nor the wielder of the shield, nor the minstrel: these didst thou straightway renounce to lesser gods, other cares to others. But thou didst choose the rulers of cities themselves, beneath whose hand is the lord of the soil, the skilled in spearmanship, the oarsman, yea, all things that are: what is there that is not under the ruler&rsquos sway? Thus, smith, we say, belong to Hephaestus to Ares, warriors to Artemis of the Tunic, 36 huntsmen to Phoebus they that know well the strains of the lyre. But from Zeus come kings for nothing is diviner than the kings of Zeus. Wherefore thou didst choose them for thine own lot, and gavest them cities to guard. And thou didst seat thyself in the high places of the cities, watching who rule their people with crooked judgements, and who rule otherwise. And thou hast bestowed upon them wealth and prosperity abundantly unto all, but not in equal measure. One may well judge by our Ruler, 37 for he hath clean outstripped all others. At evening he accomplisheth what whereon he thinketh in the morning yea, at evening the greatest things, but the lesser soon as he thinketh on them. But the others accomplish some things in a year, and some things not in one of others, again, thou thyself dost utterly frustrate the accomplishing and thwartest their desire.

[90] Hail! greatly hail! most high Son of Cronus, giver of good things, giver of safety. Thy works who could sing? There hath not been, there shall not be, who shall sing the works of Zeus. Hail! Father, hail again! And grant us goodness and prosperity. Without goodness wealth cannot bless men, nor goodness without prosperity. Give us goodness and weal.

1. Mountain in Crete.
2. Mountain in Arcadia.
3. This proverbial saying, attributed to Epimenides, is quoted by St. Paul. Ep. Tit. i. 12, &ldquoOne of themselves, a prophet of their own, said, The Cretans are always liars, evil beasts, idle bellies&rdquo (kata thêria, gasteres argai), and seems to be alluded to by Aratus, Phaen. 30 ei eteon dê. The explanation given by Athenodorus of Eretria ap. Ptolem. Hephaest. In Photii Bibl. p. 150 Bekk. Is that Thetis and Medea, having a dispute as to which of them was the fairer, entrusted the decision to Idomeneus of Crete. He decided in favour of Thetis, whereon Medea said, &ldquoCretans are always liars&rdquo and cursed them that they should never speak the truth. The schol. On the present passage says that Idomeneus divided the spoils of Troy unfairly.
4. The Cretan legend was that Zeus was a prince who was slain by a wild boar and buried in Crete. His tomb was variously localized and the tradition of &ldquothe tomb of Zeus&rdquo attaches to several places even in modern times, especially to Mount Iuktas. See A. B. Cook, Zeus, vol. i. p. 157 ff.
5. Arcadia.
6. Cf. Apoll. Rh. iv. 1240.
7. Goddess of birth.
8. The ancient Arcadians (schol.).
9. River in Arcadia.
10. Melas: Dion. Per. 415 ff. Arkades Apidanêes hupo skopiên Erumanthou, entha Melas, othi Krathis, ina rheei hugros Idaôn, êchi kai ôgugios mêkunetai udasi Ladôn. Herodot. i. 145 has Ôlenos en tô Peiros potamos megas estia. Strabo 386 has Ôlenos, par&rsquo on potramos megas Melas where it has been proposed to read par&rsquo on <Peiros> and to omit Melas. M. T. Smiley, in Classical Qu. v. (1911) p. 89 f., suggests that the Styx is meant, which supplies the waterfall near Nonacris in North Arcadia and later becomes a tributary of the Crathis (Paus. viii. 18. 4). When Leake discovered the waterfall in 1806 the natives did not know the name Styx for it but called it the Black Water (Mavro nero) or the Dragon Water. The name Peiros in any case suggests a connexion with the underworld.

11. Carnion or Carion, river in Arcadia, Paus. viii. 34.
12. Crathis, river in Arcadia (and Achaea), Paus. vii. 25. 11, viii. 15. 5, viii. 18. 4.
13. Metope, river in Arcadia.
14. Cf. Paus. iv. 33. 1, &ldquoThe Messenians say that Zeus was reared among them and that his nurses were Ithome and Neda, after whom the river got its name.&rdquo Cf. viii. 38 ff.
15. Styx, daughter of Oceanus and Tethys, Hesiod, Th. 361.
16. Philyra, daughter of Oceanus, mother of Cheiron by Cronus.
17. Paus. iv. 20. 2. The river Neda rises in Mount Lycaeon, flows into Messenia and forms the boundary between Messenia and Elis. Cf. Strabo 348 who says it rises in Lycaeon from a spring which Rheia caused to flow in order to wash the infant Zeus.
18. A people of Triphylia, Hom. Od. iii. 366.
19. Herod. iv. 148 says that Lepreon in Triphylia was founded by the Minyae after driving out the Cauconians.
20. i.e. the sea.

21. Arcas, the ancestor of the Arcadians, was the son of Zeus and Lycaon&rsquos daughter Callisto who was changed into a bear.
22. Town in Crete.
23. Cydonia, town in Crete.
24. Schol. Nicand. Alex. 7 Omphalos gar topos en Krêtê, hôs kai Kallimachos pege . . . Kudônes. Diodor. v. 70 tells the story (he says that Zeus was carried by the Curetes) and gives the name of the place as Omphalos and of the plain around as Omphaleion.
25. Corybantes.
26. The ash-tree nymphs, cf. Hesiod. Th. 187.
27. Cf. Apoll. Rh. iii. 132 ff. Dios perikalles athurma | keino, to oi poise philê trophos Adrêsteia | antrô en Idaiô eti nêpia kourixonti | sphairan eutrochalon i.q. Nemesis, sister of the Curetes (schol.).
28. The nymph of she-goat who suckled Zeus Diodor. v. 70, Apollod. 1. 5, schol. Arat. 161. Ovid, Fast. i. 115 ff.
29. Mountains in Crete (Steph. Byz. s.v. Panakra). Zeus rewarded the bees by making them of a golden bronze colour and rendering them insensible to the rigours of the mountain climate (Diodor. v. 70).
30. Apollodor. i. 4, &ldquoThe Curetes in full armour, guarding the infant in the cave, beat their shields with their spears that Cronus might not hear the child&rsquos voice.&rdquo

31. prulis, the Cyprian name for the purrhichê (Aristotle fr. 476, schol. Pind. P. ii. 127) or dance in armour (Pollux iv. 96 and 99) see Classical Qu. xxxii. p. 131.
32. This has been supposed to refer to the fact that Ptolemy Philadelphus was the youngest of the sons of Ptolemy Soter.
33. Homer, Il. xv. 187 ff. cf. Apollodor. i. 7, Pind O. vii. 54 ff.
34. Bia and Cratos appear as personification of the might and majesty of Zeus in Aeschylus, P.V., Hesiod, Th. 385, etc.
35. The eagle.
36. Artemis Chitone (Chitonea, Athen. 629 c), so called from the tunic (chiton) in which as huntress she was represented not, as the schol. Says, from the Attic deme Chitone.
37. Ptolemy II. Philadelphus, 285-247 B.C.


[1] How the laurel branch of Apollo trembles! How trembles all the shrine! Away, away, he that is sinful! Now surely Phoebus knocketh at the door with his beautiful foot. See&rsquost thou not? The Delian palm 1 nods pleasantly of a sudden and the swan 2 in the air sings sweetly. Of yourselves now ye bolts be pushed back, pushed back of yourselves, ye bars! The god is no longer far away. And ye, young men, prepare ye for song and for the dance.

[9] Not unto everyone doth Apollo appear, but unto him that is good. Whoso hath seen Apollo, he is great whoso hath not seen him, he is of low estate. We shall see thee, O Archer, and we shall never be lowly. Let no the youths keep silent lyre or noiseless step, when Apollo visits 3 his shrine, if they think to accomplish marriage and to cut the locks of age, 4 and if the wall is to stand upon its old foundations. Well done the youths, for that the shell 5 is no longer idle.

[17] Be hushed, ye that hear, at the song to Apollo yea, hushed is even the sea when the minstrels celebrate the lyre or the bow, the weapons of Lycoreian Phoebus. 6 Neither doth Thetis his mother wail her dirge for Achilles, when she hears Hië 7 Paeëon, Hië Paeëon.

[22] Yea, the tearful rock defers its pain, the wet stone is set in Phrygia, a marble rock like a woman 8 open-mouthed in some sorrowful utterance. Say ye Hië! Hië! an ill thing it is strive with the Blessed Ones. He who fights with the Blessed Ones would fight with my King 9 he who fights with my King, would fight even with Apollo. Apollo will honour the choir, since it sings according to his heart for Apollo hath power, for that he sitteth on the right hand of Zeus. Nor will the choir sing of Phoebus for one day only. He is a copious theme of song who would not readily sing of Phoebus?

[32] Golden is the tunic of Apollo and golden his mantle, his lyre and his Lyctian 10 bow and his quiver: golden too are his sandals for rich in gold is Apollo, rich also in possessions: by Pytho mightst thou guess. And ever beautiful is he and ever young: never on the girl cheeks of Apollo hath come so much as the down of manhood. His locks distil fragrant oils upon the ground not oil of fat do the locks of Apollo distil but he very Healing of All. 11 And in whatsoever city whose dews fall upon the ground, in that city all things are free from harm.

[42] None is so abundant in skill as Apollo. To him belongs the archer, to him the minstrel for unto Apollo is given in keeping alike archery and song. His are the lots of the diviner and his the seers and from Phoebus do leeches know the deferring of death.

[47] Phoebus and Nomius 12 we call him, ever since that when by Amphrysus 13 he tended the yokemares, fired with love of young Admetus. 14 Lightly would the herd of cattle wax larger, nor would the she-goats of the flock lack young, whereon as they feed Apollo casts his eye nor without milk would the ewes be nor barren, but all would have lambs at foot and she that bare one would soon be the mother of twins.

[55] And Phoebus it is that men follow when they map out cities. 15 For Phoebus himself doth weave their foundations. Four years of age was Phoebus when he framed his first foundations in fair Ortygia 16 near the round lake. 17

[60] Artemis hunted and brought continually the heads of Cynthian goats and Phoebus plaited an altar. 18 With horns builded he the foundations, and of horns framed he the altar, and of horns were the walls he built around. Thus did Phoebus learn to raise his first foundations. Phoebus, too, it was told Battus 19 of my own city of fertile soil, and in guise of a raven 20 &ndash auspicious to our founder &ndash led his people as they entered Libya and sware that he would vouchsafe a walled city to our kings. 21 And the oath of Apollo is ever sure. O Apollo! Many there be that call thee Boëdromius, 22 and many there be that call thee Clarius 23 : everywhere is thy name on the lips of many. But I call thee Carneius 24 for such is the manner of my fathers. Sparta, O Carneius! was they first foundation and next Thera but third the city of Cyrene. From Sparta the sixth 25 generation of the sons of Oedipus brought thee to their colony of Thera and from Thera lusty Aristoteles 26 set thee by the Asbystian 27 land, and builded thee a shrine exceedingly beautiful, and in the city established a yearly festival wherein many a bull, O Lord, falls on his haunches for the last time. Hië, Hië, Carneius! Lord of many prayers, - thine altars wear flowers in spring, even all the pied flowers which the Hours lead forth when Zephyrus breathes dew, and in winter the sweet crocus. Undying evermore is thy fire, nor ever doth the ash feed about the coals of yester-even. Greatly, indeed, did Phoebus rejoice as the belted warriors of Enyo danced with the yellow-haired Libyan women, when the appointed season of the Carnean feast came round. But not yet could the Dorians approach the fountains of Cyre, 28 but dwelt in Azilis 29 thick with wooded dells. These did the Lord himself behold and showed them to his bride 30 as he stood on horned Myrtussa 31 where the daughter of Hypseus slew the lion that harried the kind of Eurypylus. 32 No other dance more divine hath Apollo beheld, nor to any city hath he given so many blessings as he hath given to Cyrene, remembering his rape of old. Nor, again, is there any other god whom the sons of Battus have honoured above Phoebus.

[97] Hië, Hië, Paeëon, we hear &ndash since this refrain did the Delphian folk first invent, what time thou didst display the archery of they golden bow. As thou wert going down to Pytho, there met thee a beast unearthly, a dread snake. 33 And him thou didst slay, shooting swift arrows one upon the other and the folk cried &ldquoHië, Hië, Paeëon, shoot an arrow!&rdquo A helper 34 from the first thy mother bare thee, and ever since that is thy praise.

[105] Spare Envy privily in the ear of Apollo: &ldquoI admire not the poet who singeth not things for number as the sea.&rdquo 35 Apollon spurned Envy with his foot and spake thus: &ldquoGreat is the stream of the Assyrian river, 36 but much filth of earth and much refuse it carries on its waters. And not of every water do the Melissae carry to Deo, 37 but of the trickling stream that springs from a holy fountain, pure and undefiled, the very crown of waters.&rdquo Hail, O Lord, but Blame &ndash let him go where Envy dwells!

1. The palm-tree by which Leto supported herself when she bare Apollo. Cf. H. Delos 210, Hom. H. Apoll. 117, Od. vi. 162 f. Theogn. 5 f. The laurel and the palm are coupled in Euripides, Hecuba, 458 ff.
2. For the association of the swan with Apollo cf. Hymn to Delos 249 Plato, Phaedo, 85 Manilius v. 381 "ipse Deum Cygnus condit.&rdquo
3. The schol. on v. 12 remarks that Callimachus emphasizes the presence of the God because &ldquoit is said in the case of prophetic gods that the deities are sometimes present (epidêmein), sometimes absent (apodêmein), and when they are present the oracles are true, when absent false.&rdquo Cf. Pind. P. iv. 5 ouk apodamou Apollônos tuchontos. The Delphians celebrated the seventh day of the month Bysios &ndash the birthday of Apollo &ndash when he was supposed to revisit his temple, and the seventh of the holy month (Attic Anthesterion) was celebrated by the Delians when Apollo was supposed to return to Delos from the land of the Hyperboreans. (W. Schmidt, Geburstag im Altertum, p. 86.) Cf. Verg. A. iii. 91.
4. i.e. if they are to live to an old age.
5. i.e. the lyre, originally made by Hermes from the shell of a tortoise. êgasamên = Well done!
6. Lycoreus, by-name of Apollo, from Lycoreia, town on Parnassus above Delphi: Strabo 418. 3 hyperkeitai d&rsquo autês hê Lukôreia eph&rsquo topou proteron hidrunto hoi Delphoi hyper tou hierou. Legends of its foundation in Pausanias x. 6, 2-3. Ph. Lukôreioio Apoll. Rh. iv. 1490.
7. Though , not hiê, is the usual form, it is perhaps better here to write the aspirated form to suit the suggested etymology from hiei &ldquoshoot.&rdquo See vv. 97-104 for the legend.
8. Niobe, daughter of Tantalus, had, according to Hom. Il. xxiv. 602 ff. six sons and six daughters, who were slain by Apollo and Artemis respectively, because she boasted over their mother Leto, who had but two children. Niobe was turned into a stone, and this was identified with a rude rock figure on Mount Sipylos near Smyrna which is still to be seen. The water running down the face of the rock was supposed to be Niobe&rsquos tears &ndash entha lithos per eousa theôn ek kêdea pessei, Hom. l.c. 617, cf. &ldquoPhrygium silicem,&rdquo Stat. S. v. 3. 87.
9. Ptolemy III. Euergetes, according to the schol.
10. Lyctos, town in Crete.

11. As a personification Panaceia appears frequently as the daughter of Asclepius. In the Hippocratean oath she is named after Apollo, Asclepius and Hygieie. Such &ldquoall-healing&rdquo virtue was in early times ascribed to various plants (Panakes Cheirônion, Aslêpieion, etc.).
12. Cf. Pind. ix. 65.
13. River in Thessaly where Apollo tended the flocks of Admetus. Cf. Verg. G. iii.2 &ldquopastor ab Amphryso.&rdquo
14. King of Pherae in Thessaly.
15. Hence Apollo&rsquos titles Archêgetês, Ktistês, etc.
16. Delos.
17. A lake in Delos. Cf. H. iv. 261, Theognis vii, Apollo is born epi trochoeidei limnê, and Eur. I.T. 1104.
18. The keratin (Plut. Thes. 21, Dittenb. Syll. No. 588, 172) bômos keratinos (Plut. Sollert. animal. 35), made entirely of horns, was one of the Seven Wonders of the World. Cf. Anon. De incredib. 2 Ovid, Her. 21. 99.
19. Battus (Aristoteles), founder of Cyrene, birthplace of Callimachus.
20. The raven was one of the birds sacred to Apollo.

21. The Battiadae.
22. Boëdromius: Et. Mag. s.v. Boêdromiôn. Hoti polemou sustantos Athênaiois kai Eleusiniois summachêsantos Iônos . . enikêsan Athênaioi. apo oun tês tou strateumatos boês tês epi to astru dramousês ho te Apollôn boêdromios eklêthê kai hê thuria kai ho autois ho theos meta boês epithesthai tois polemiois. Doubtless the Athenians associated the name with help given them by some superhuman champtions (boêdromoi = boadooi, Pind, N. vii. 31). Mommsen, Feste d. Stadt Athen, p. 171.
23. Clarius, by-name of Apollo, from Claros near Colophon.
24. Carneius, by-name of Apollo in many Dorian states, as Sparta, Thera, Cyrene.
25. The genealogy is Oedipus &ndash Polyneices &ndash Thersander &ndash Tisamenus &ndash Autesion &ndash Theras, who led the colony to Thera and who is the sixth descendant of Oedipus according to the Greek way of reckoning inclusively. Cf. Herod. iv. 147.
26. Battus.
27. The Asbystae were a people in Cyrenaica.
28. Cyre: stream at Cyrene which after running some distance under ground reappears at the Temple of Apollo as the fountain of Apollo (Herod. iv. 158, Pind. P. iv. 294).
29. Azilis or Aziris where the Theraeans with Battus dwelt for six years before they went to Cyrene (Herod. iv. 157 ff.).
30. Cyrene.

31. i.e. &ldquoMyrtle-hill&rdquo in Cyrene.
32. Eurypylus: prehistoric king of Libya, who offered his kingdom to anyone who should slay the lion which was ravaging his land. Cyrene slew the lion and so won the kingdom (Acesandros of Cyrene in schol. Apoll. Rh. ii. 498).
33. In Strabo 422 Python is a man, surnamed Draco. Pytho was popularly derived from the fact that the slain snake rotted (puthô) there.
34. Callimachus seems to adopt the old derivation of aossêtêr from ossa (voice). Thus aossêtêr = boëthoos. For ezeti cf. H. iv. 275.
35. Cf. Apoll. Rhod. iii. 932.
36. Euphrates.
37. Deo = Demeter, whose priestesses were called Melissae (Bees): Porphyr. De antro nympharum 18 kai tas Dêmêtros hiereias hôs tês chthonias theas mustidas Melissas oi Palaioi ekaloun autên te tên Korên Melitôdê (Theocr. xv. 94).


[1] Artemis we hymn &ndash no light thing is it for singers to forget her &ndash whose study is the bow and the shooting of hares and the spacious dance and sport upon the mountains beginning with the time when sitting on her father&rsquos knees &ndash still a little maid &ndash she spake these words to her sire: &ldquoGive me to keep my maidenhood, Father, forever: and give me to be of many names, that Phoebus may not vie with me. And give me arrows and a bow &ndash stay, Father, I ask thee not for quiver or for mighty bow: for me the Cyclopes will straightway fashion arrows and fashion for me a well-bent bow. But give me to be Bringer of Light 1 and give me to gird me in a tunic 2 with embroidered border reaching to the knee, that I may slay wild beasts. And give me sixty daughters of Oceanus for my choir &ndash all nine years old, all maidens yet ungirdled and give me for handmaidens twenty nymphs of Amnisus 3 who shall tend well my buskins, and, when I shoot no more at lynx or stag, shall tend my swift hounds. And give to me all mountains and for city, assign me any, even whatsoever thou wilt: for seldom is it that Artemis goes down to the town. On the mountains will I dwell and the cities of men I will visit only when women vexed by the sharp pang of childbirth call me to their aid 4 even in the hour when I was born the Fates ordained that I should be their helper, forasmuch as my mother suffered no pain either when she gave me birth or when she carried me win her womb, but without travail put me from her body.&rdquo So spake the child and would have touched her father&rsquos beard, but many a hand did she reach forth in vain, that she might touch it.

[28] And her father smiled and bowed assent. And as he caressed her, he said: &ldquoWhen goddesses bear me children like this, little need I heed the wrath of jealous Hera. Take, child, all that thou askest, heartily. Yea, and other things therewith yet greater will thy father give thee. Three times ten cities and towers more than one will I vouchsafe thee &ndash three times ten cities that shall not know to glorify any other god but to glorify the only and be called of Artemis And thou shalt be Watcher over Streets 5 and harbours. 6 &rdquo So he spake and bent his head to confirm his words.

[40] And the maiden faired unto the white mountain of Crete leafy with woods thence unto Oceanus and she chose many nymphs all nine years old, all maidens yet ungirdled. And the river Caraetus 7 was glad exceedingly, and glad was Tethys that they were sending their daughters to be handmaidens to the daughter of Leto.

[46] And straightway she went to visit the Cyclopes. Them she found in the isle of Lipara &ndash Lipara in later days, but at the at time its name was Meligunis &ndash at the anvils of Hephaestus, standing round a molten mass of iron. For a great work was being hastened on: they fashioned a horse-trough for Poseidon. And the nymphs were affrighted when they saw the terrible monsters like unto the crags of Ossa: all had single eyes beneath their brows, like a shield of fourfold hide for size, glaring terribly from under and when they heard the din of the anvil echoing loudly, and the great blast of the bellows and the heavy groaning of the Cyclopes themselves. For Aetna cried aloud, and Trinacia 8 cried, the seat of the Sicanians, cried too their neighbour Italy, and Cyrnos 9 therewithal uttered a mighty noise, when they lifted their hammers above their shoulders and smote with rhythmic swing 10 the bronze glowing from the furnace or iron, labouring greatly. Wherefore the daughters of Oceanus could not untroubled look upon them face to face nor endure the din in their ears. No shame to them! On those not even the daughters of the Blessed look without shuddering. Though long past childhood&rsquos years. But when any of the maidens doth disobedience to her mother, the mother calls the Cyclopes to her child &ndash Arges or Steropes and from within the house comes Hermes, stained 11 with burnt ashes. And straightway he plays bogey to the child, and she runs into her mother&rsquos lap, with her hands upon her eyes. But thou, Maiden, even earlier, while yet but three years old, when Leto came bearing thee in her arms at the bidding of Hephaestus that he might give thee handsel 12 and Brontes 13 set thee on his stout knees &ndash thou didst pluck the shaggy hair of his great breast and tear it out by force. And even unto this day the mid part of his breast remains hairless, even when mange settles on a man&rsquos temples and eats the hair away.

[80] Therefore right boldly didst thou address them then: &ldquoCyclopes, for me too fashion ye a Cydonian 14 bow and arrows and a hollow casket for my shafts for I also am a child of Leto, even as Apollo. And if I with my bow shall slay some wild creature or monstrous beast, that shall the Cyclopes eat.&rdquo So didst thou speak and they fulfilled thy words. Straightway dist thou array thee, O Goddess. And speedily again thou didst go to get thee hounds and thou camest to the Arcadian fold of Pan. And he was cutting up the flesh of a lynx of Maenalus 15 that his bitches might eat it for food. And to thee the Bearded God 16 gave two dogs black-and-white, 17 three reddish, 18 and one spotted, which pulled down 19 very lions hen they clutched their throats and haled them still living to the fold. And he gave thee seven Cynosurian 20 bitches swifter than the winds - that breed which is swiftest to pursue fawns and the hare which closes not his eyes 21 swiftest too to mark the lair of the stag and where the porcupine 22 hath his burrow, and to lead upon the track of the gazelle.

[98] Thence departing (and thy hounds sped with thee) thou dist find by the base of the Parrhasian hill deer gamboling &ndash a mighty herd. They always herded by the banks of the black-pebbled Anaurus &ndash larger than bulls, and from their horns shone gold. And thou wert suddenly amazed and sadist to thine own heart: &ldquoThis would be a first capture worthy of Artemis.&rdquo Five were there in all and four thou didst take by speed of foot &ndash without the chase of dogs &ndash to draw thy swift car. But one escaped over the river Celadon, by devising of Hera, that it might be in the after days a labour for Heracles, 23 and the Ceryneian hill received her.

[109] Artemis, Lady of Maidenhood, Slayer of Tityus, golden were thine arms and golden thy belt, and a golden car didst thou yoke, and golden bridles, goddess, didst thou put on thy deer. And where first did thy horned team begin to carry thee? To Thracian Haemus, whence comes the hurricane of Boreas bringing evil breath of frost to cloakless men. And where didst thou cut the pine and from what flame didst thou kindle it? It was on Mysian Olympus, and thou didst put in tit the breath of flame unquenchable, which thy Father&rsquos bolts distil. And how often goddess, didst thou make trial of thy silver bow? First at an elm, and next at an oak didst thou shoot, and third again at a wild beast. But the fourth time &ndash not long was it ere thou didst shoot at the city of unjust me, those who to one another and those who towards strangers wrought many deeds of sin, forward men, on whom thou wilt impress thy grievous wrath. On their cattle plague feeds, on their tilth feeds frost, and the old men cut their hair in mourning over their sons, and their wives either are smitten or die in childbirth, or, if they escape, bear birds whereof none stands on upright ankle. But on whomsoever thou lookest smiling and gracious, for them the tilth bears the corn-ear abundantly, and abundantly prospers the four-footed breed, and abundant waxes their prosperity: neither do they go to the tomb, save when they carry thither the aged. Nor does faction wound their race &ndash faction which ravages even the well-established houses: but brother&rsquos wife and husband&rsquos sister set their chairs around one board. 24

[134] Lady, of that number be whosoever is a true friend of mine, and of that number may I be myself, O Queen. And may song be my study forever. In that song shall be the Marriage of Leto therein thy name shall often-times be sung therein shall Apollo be and therein all thy labours, and therein thy hounds and thy bow and thy chariots, which lightly carry thee in thy splendour, when thou drivest to the house of Zeus. There in the entrance meet thee Hermes and Apollo: Hermes the Lord of Blessing, 25 takes thy weapons, Apollo takes whatsoever wild beast thou bringest. Yea, so Apollo did before strong Alcides 26 came, but now Phoebus hath this task no longer in such wise the Anvil of Tiryns 27 stands ever before the gates, waiting to see if thou wilt come home with some fat morsel. And all the gods laugh at him with laughter unceasingly and most of all his own wife&rsquos mother 28 when he brings from the car a great bull or a wild boar, carrying it by the hind foot struggling. With this sunning speech, goddess, doth he admonish thee: &ldquoShoot at the evil wild beasts that mortals may call thee their helper even as they call me. Leave deer and hares to feed upon the hills. What harm could deer and hares do? It is boars which ravage the tilth of men and boars which ravage the plants and oxen are a great bane to men: shoot also at those.&rdquo So he spake and swiftly busied him about the mighty beast. For though beneath a Phrygian 29 oak his flesh was deified, yet hath he not ceased from gluttony. Still hath he that belly wherewith he met Theiodamas 30 at the plough.

[162] For thee the nymphs of Amnisus rub down the hinds loosed from the yoke, and from the mead of Hera they gather and carry for them to feed on much swift-springing clover, which also the horses of Zeus eat and golden troughs they fill with water to be for the deer a pleasant draught. And thyself thou enterest thy Father&rsquos house, and all alike bid thee to a seat but thou sittest beside Apollo.

[170] But when the nymphs encircle thee in the dance, near the springs of Egyptian Inopus 31 or Pitane 32 &ndash for Pitane too is thine &ndash or in Limnae 33 or where, goddess, thou camest from Scythia to dwell, in Alae Araphenides, 34 renouncing the rites of the Tauri, 35 then may not my kine cleave a four-acred 36 fallow field for a wage at the hand of an alien ploughman else surely lame and weary of neck would they come to the byre, yea even were they of Stymphaean 37 breed, nine 38 years of age, drawing by the horns which kine are far the best for cleaving a deep furrow for the god Helios never passes by that beauteous dance, but stays his car to gaze upon the sight, and the lights of day are lengthened.

[183] Which now of islands, what hill finds most favour with thee? What haven? What city? Which of the nymphs dost thou love above the rest, and what heroines hast thou taken for thy companions? Say, goddess, thou to me, and I will sing thy saying to others. Of islands, Doliche 39 hath found favour with thee, of cities Perge, 40 of hills Taygeton, 41 the havens of Euripus. And beyond others thou lovest the nymph of Gortyn, Britomartis, 42 slayer of stags, the goodly archer for love of whom was Minos of old distraught and roamed the hills of Crete. And the nymph would hide herself now under the shaggy oaks and anon in the low meadows. And for nine months he roamed over crag and cliff and made not an end of pursuing, until, all but caught, she leapt into the sea from the top of a cliff and fell into the nets of fishermen which saved her. Whence in after days the Cydonians call the nymph the Lady of the Nets (Dictyna) and the hill whence the nymph leaped they call the hill of Nets (Dictaeon), and there they set up altars and do sacrifice. And the garland on that day is pine or mastich, but the hands touch not the myrtle. For when she was in flight, a myrtle branch became entangled in the maiden&rsquos robes wherefore she was greatly angered against the myrtle. Upis, 43 O Queen, fair-faced Bringer of Light, thee too the Cretans name after that nymph.

[206] Yea and Cyrene thou madest thy comrade, to whom on a time thyself didst give two hunting dogs, with whom the maiden daughter of Hypseus 44 beside the Iolcian tomb 45 won the prize. And the fair-haired wife 46 of Cephalus, son of Deioneus, O Lady, thou madest thy fellow in the chase and fair Anticleia, 47 they say, thou dist love even as thine own eyes. These were the first who wore the gallant bow and arrow-holding quivers on their shoulders their right shoulders bore the quiver strap, 48 and always the right breast showed bare. Further thou dist greatly commend swift-footed Atalanta, 49 the slayer of boars, daughter of Arcadian Iasius, and taught her hunting with dogs and good archery. They that were called to hunt the boar of Calydon find no fault with her for the tokens of victory came into Arcadia which still holds the tusks of the beast. Nor do I deem that Hylaeus 50 and foolish Rhoecus, for all their hate, in Hades slight her archery. For the loins, with whose blood the height of Maenalus flowed, will not abet the falsehood.

[225] Lady of many shrines, of many cities, hail! Goddess of the Tunic, 51 sojourner in Miletus for thee did Neleus 52 make his Guide, 53 when he put off with his ships from the land of Cecrops. 54 Lady of Chesion 55 and of Imbrasus, 56 throned 57 in the highest, to thee in thy shrine did Agamemnon dedicate the rudder of his ship, a charm against ill weather, 58 when thou didst bind the winds for him, what time the Achaean ships sailed to vex the cities of the Teucri, wroth for Rhamnusian 59 Helen.

[233] For thee surely Proetus 60 established two shrines, one of Artemis of Maidenhood for that thou dist gather for him his maiden daughters, 61 when they were wandering over the Azanian 62 hills the other he founded in Lusa 63 to Artemis the Gentle, 64 because thou tookest from his daughters the spirit of wildness. For thee, too, the Amazons, whose mind is set on war, in Ephesus beside the sea established an image beneath an oak trunk, and Hippo 65 performed a holy rite for thee, and they themselves, O Upis Queen, around the image danced a war-dance &ndash first in shields and armour, and again in a circle arraying a spacious choir. And the loud pipes thereto piped shrill accompaniment, that they might foot the dance together (for not yet did they pierce the bones of the fawn, Athena&rsquos handiwork, 66 a bane to the deer). And the echo reached unto Sardis and to the Berecynthian 67 range. And they with their feet beat loudly and therewith their quivers rattled.

[248] And afterwards around that image was raised a shrine of broad foundations. That it shall dawn behold nothing more divine, naught richer. Easily would it outdo Pytho. Wherefore in this madness insolent Lygdamis threatened that he would lay it waste, and brought against it a host of Cimmerians 68 which milk mares, in number as the sand who have their homes hard by the Straits 69 of the cow, daughter of Inachus. Ah! foolish among kings, how greatly he sinned! For not destined to return again to Scythia was either he or any other of those whose wagons stood in the Caystrian 70 plain for thy shafts are ever more set as a defence before Ephesus.

[258] O Lady of Munychia, 71 Watcher of Harbours, hail, Lady of Pherae! 72 Let none disparage Artemis. For Oeneus 73 dishonoured her altar and no pleasant struggles came upon his city. Nor let any content with her in shooting of stags or in archery. For the son 74 of Atreus vaunted him not that he suffered small requital. Neither let any woo the Maiden for not Otus, nor Orion wooed her to their own good. Nor let any shun the yearly dance for not tearless to Hippo 75 was her refusal to dance around the altar. Hail, great queen, and graciously greet my song.

1. phôsphoros is one of the titles of Artemis cf. v. 204, Eur. Iphi. in T. 21.
2. See note on v. 225.
3. Amnisus, river in Crete. Cf. Apoll. Rhod. iii. 877 ff.
4. Artemis in one aspect is Eileithyia = Lucina. She is said to have been born before Apollo and to have assisted at his birth. Hence her birthday was put on the 6th of Thargelion (Diog. L. ii. 44), while Apollo was born on the 7th. (W. Schmidt, Geburstag im Altertum, p. 94.)
5. Hence her title enodia, A. P. vi. 199.
6. As goddess of mariners she is called Euporia, Limenitis etc. So Nêossoos, Apoll. Rh. i. 570.
7. River near Cnossus in Crete, Strabo 476.
8. Sicily.
9. Corsica.
10. It is hard to determine the sense of amboladis. The schol. says ek diadochês, i.e. in succession or alternately. The same difficulty attaches to amblêdên and amboladên, which the scholiasts interpret usually as either = apopooimiou or as = &ldquoby spurts&rdquo (e.g. Pind. N. x. 62, where among other explanations in the scholia one is ouk ephexês, i.e. not continuously). The combination of amboladên with zeiô in Hom. Il. xxi. 364, Herod. iv. 181 might suggest that here to amboladis should be taken with zeionta in the sense of &ldquosputtering,&rdquo but the order of words is against that.

11. kechrêmenos of MSS. is probably correct. This participle in late poetry is used in the vaguest way to indicate any sort of condition.
12. optêria, ta hyper tou idein dôra (schol.), were gifts given on seeing for the first time a new-born child (schol. Aesch. Eum. 7 Nonn. v. 139). Very similar is the birthday-gift proper, the dosis genethlios or gegethlia. Ta epi tê prôtê hêmera dôra (Hesych.). Phoebe gave the oracle at Delphi as a birthday gift to Phoebus. More usually optêria = anakaluptêria, gifts given to the bride by the bridegroom on seeing her for the first time Pollux ii. 59 optêria ta dôra ta para tou proton idontos tên numphên numphiou didomena. Cf. iii. 36 ta de para tou andros didomena edna kai optêria kai anakaluptêria . . . kai prosphthegktêria ekaloun. Moeris 205. 24 optêria Attikôs, anakaluptêria Hellênikôs.
13. The three Cyclopes, sons of Gaia, were Brontes, Steropes, Arges (Hesiod, Th. 140).
14. i.e. Cretan, cf. Stat. Th. iv. 269 &ldquoCydonea harundine,&rdquo vii. 339 &ldquoCydoneas sagittas.&rdquo
15. Mountain in Arcadia.
16. Cf. Homer H. Pan 39.
17.The ancients differed as to whether pêgos meant black or white (Hesych. s.vv. pêgos and pêgesimallô).
18. It is by no means certain that the MSS. parouatious is wrong, &ldquowith hanging ears.&rdquo Parouaious is based upon Hesych. s.v v. parôas, parôos, Aelian. H.A. viii. 12 cf. Arist. H.A. ix. 45, Dem. De cor. 260. Should we read Parauaious, i.e. Molossian?
19. au eruontes, common in Oppian and Nonnus, is apparently a misunderstanding of the Homeric aueruontes (= anaferuontes).
20. Arcadian, cf. Stat. Th. iv. 295 &ldquodives Cynosura ferarum.&rdquo

21. Oppian, Cyneg. iii. 511 f.
22. Oppian, ibid. 391 ff.
23. Apollodor. ii. 5. 3 &ldquoThe third labour which he (Eurystheus) imposed on him (Heracles) was to bring the Cerynean hind (Kerunitin elaphon) to Mycenae alive. This was a hind . . . with golden horns, sacred to Artemis.&rdquo Cf. Pind. O. iii. 29.
24. einateres = wives whose husbands are brothers galiô = wife and sister(s) of one man. (Hom. Il. vi. 378) Gercke, Rh. Mus. xlii (1887), p. 273 ff., sees an allusion to Arsinoë I. and Arsinoë II.
25. Cf. the Homeric epithet of Hermes, Akakêta, Il. xvi. 185, etc.
26. Heracles, as son of Amphitryon son of Alcaeus. According to Apollodor. ii. 4. 12, Alcides was the original name of Heracles, the latter name having been bestowed upon him by the Pythian priestess when he consulted the oracle after he had gone into exile for the murder of his children. Heracles asked the oracle where he should dwell and he was told to settle in Tiryns and serve Eurystheus for twelve years.
27. There is nor reason whatever to suppose that akmôn here has any other than its ordinary sense of anvil, used metaphorically, as in Aesch. Pers. 52. It has been sometimes supposed to mean unwearied = akamatos.
28. Hera, mother of Hebe.
29. &ldquoPhrygia, a hill in Trachis where Heracles burnt&rdquo (schol.)
30. When Heracles was passing through the land of the Dryopes, being in want of food for his young son Hyllus, he unyoked and slaughtered one of the oxen of Theiodamas, king of the Dryopes, whom he found at the plough. War ensued between the Dryopes and Heracles, and the Dryopes were defeated, and Hylas, son of Theiodamas, was taken as a hostage by Heracles (Apollodor. ii. 7. 7, Apoll. Rh. i. 1211 ff., Ovid, Ib. 488). Hence Heracles got the epithet Bouthoinas, schol. Apoll. Rh. l.c., Gregor. Naz. Or. iv. 123. The Lindian peasant who was similarly treated by Heracles, and who, while Heracles feasted, stood apart and cursed (hence curious rite at Lindos in Rhodes, where, when they sacrifice to Heracles, they do it with curses, Conon 11, Apollod. ii. 5. 11. 9, Lactant. Inst. Div. i. 21) is identified with Theiodamas by Philostr. Imag. ii. 24. Cf. G. Knaack, Hermes xxiii. (1888), p. 131 ff.

31. Inopus in Delos was supposed to have a subterranean connexion with the Nile.
32. On the Eurotas with temple of Artemis.
33. This may be the Athenian Limnae (so schol.) but there was a Limnaeon also in Laconia with temple of Artemis and an image supposed to be that carried off by Orestes and Iphigeneia (Paus. iii. 7) from Taurica.
34. Attic deme between Marathon and Brauron with temple of Artemis (Eurip. Iphig. in T. 1446 ff.).
35. In the Crimea, where Artemis was worshipped with human sacrifice (Eurip. l.c., Ovid, Trist. Iv. 4, Ex Ponto iii. 2, Herod. iv. 103).
36. The typical heroic field (Hom. Od. xviii. 374, Apoll. Rh. iii. 1344) cf. Od. vii. 113.
37. i.e. from Epirus. For the great size of the Êpeirôtikai boes see Aristotle, H.A. iii. 21, who says that when milking them the milker had to stand upright in order to reach the udder. Both Stymphaea and Tymphaea seem to be attested, though the latter seems to have the better authority (Steph. Byz. s.v. Tumphon).
38. Hesiod, W. 436.
39. Doliche: either Euboea (E.M. s.v. Euboia), E. Maass, Hermes xxv. (1890), p. 404, or Icaros (Steph. Byz. s.v. Ikaros), or an island of Lycia (Steph. Byz. s.v. Dolichê. nêsos pros tê Lukia, hôs Kallimachos).
40. In Pamphylia, with temple of Artemis, Strabo 667.

41. In Laconia.
42. Britomartis or Dictyna, a Cretan goddess sometimes represented as an attendant of Artemis, sometimes regarded as identical with her.
43. Artemis in Ephesus, Sparta, etc.
44. Cyrene.
45. "The tomb of Pelias" (schol.).
46. Procris.
47. Mother of Odysseus.
48. The MS. asul(l)ôtoi is quite unknown. The translation assumes a connexion with asilla.
49. Atalanta took a prominent part in the hunt of the Calydonian boar, and received from Meleager the hide and head of the boar as her prize (Paus. viii. 45).
50. Hylaeus and Rhoecus were two centaurs who insulted Atalanta and were shot by her (Apollod. iii. 9. 2).

51. Chitone, by-name of Artemis as huntress, wearing a sleeveless tunic (chitôn) reaching to the knees.
52. Neleus, son of Codrus, founder of Miletus (Strabo, 633).
53. Artemis Hegemone as leader of colonists (Paus. viii. 37).
54. i.e. Athens.
55. Cape in Samos.
56. River in Samos.
57. Artemis was worshipped in Ephesus with the tile Prôtothroniê (Paus. x. 38. 6). For rock-cut throne on Mount Coressus at Ephesus cf. A. B. Cook, Zeus, i. p. 140 f.
58. The aploia is sometimes described as a storm, sometimes as a dead calm.
59. Epithet of Helen as daughter of Nemesis, who was worshipped at Rhamnus in Attica.
60. King of Argos.

61. For their madness and cure cf. Paus. ii. 7. 8, viii. 18. 7 f.
62. Azania in Arcadia.
63. In Arcadia.
64. For the temple of Artemis Hemera or Hemerasia at Lusa cf. Paus. viii. 18. 8.
65. Queen of the Amazons, no doubt identical with Hippolyte.
66. The flute (aulos) invented by Athena (Pind. P. xii. 22) was often made from fawn bones, Poll. Iv. 71, Athen. 182 E, Plut. Mor. 150 E.
67. In Phrygia.
68. A people living on the north of the Black Sea.
69. The Cimmerian Bosporus, which was named after the Cow (bous), i.e. Io, daughter of Inachus, king of Argos.
70. The Cayster is a river in Lydia.

71. Harbour of Athens, where Artemis had a temple (Paus. i. 1. 4).
72. Artemis Pheraia is Artemis as Hecate from Pherae in Thessaly (Paus. ii. 23. 5).
73. King of Calydon in Aetolia, who neglected to sacrifice to Artemis. In anger she sent the Calydonian boar to ravage his land.
74. Agamemnon, who shot a stag which was sacred to Artemis and boasted of the deed (Soph. Electr. 566 f., Hygin. Fab. 98). This led to the aploia at Aulis and the sacrifice of Iphigeneia.
75. Queen of the Amazons, who founded the temple of Artemis at Ephesus.

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